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Oxycodone, a strong and addictive drug used to treat moderate to severe pain. It is an analgesic medication synthesized from poppy-derived thebaine. Oxycodone can be available in instant release and extended release tablets. It is often also combined with acetaminophen, marketed under the name Percoset. Oxycodone is a very powerful pain medication and can lead to addiction and dependency.

History

It was developed in 1916 in Germany, as one of several new semi-synthetic opioids in an attempt to improve on the existing opioids: morphine, diacetylmorphine (heroin), and codeine. Oxycodone is available in the forms of instant release, paired with Acetaminophen, or extended release.

Dosage

WE ARE NOT DOCTORS. CONSUME THE DOSAGES BELOW AT YOUR OWN RISK

In high doses, overdoses, or in patients not tolerant to opiates, oxycodone can cause shallow breathing, bradycardia, cold-clammy skin, apnea, hypotension, miosis, circulatory collapse, respiratory arrest, and death.

The following refer to oxycodone in the form of a drug such as Roxicet or Percosets. This does not apply to XR Oxycodone in the form of a drug like OxyContin which has a time release mechanism. Oxycodone can be taken orallyRoute of administration in which the subject swallows a substance., insufflated, or IVed (which is extremely dangerous.)

Oral
Light 2.5-10mg
Common 10-25mg
Strong 25-40mg

Insufflated

Light 2.5-7.5mg
Common 7.5-15mg
Strong 15-25mg

Duration

Half-life depends on a lot of factors such as weight, BMI, and metabolism.

Half-life = 3-4.5 hours duration depends upon R.O.A., as IVing will last much shorter, but with a more intense high, yet taking your Oxycodone orallyRoute of administration in which the subject swallows a substance. will be much more mellow feeling accompanied by a lesser "rush" feeling. but last longer.

Oral
Onset 20-40 minutes
Peak 30-60 minutes

Insufflated

Onset 5-20 seconds
Peak 5-15 minutes

Intravenous

Onset Instantly
Peak 2-5 minutes

Effects

Positive

  • Euphoria
  • Drip
  • Pain relief

Neutral

  • Itching

Negative

  • Nausea
  • Constipation
  • CNSCentral Nervous System depression
  • Drowsiness
  • Sweating
  • Dizziness
  • Vomiting

Harm Reduction

Do not take any more oxycodone than you are prescribed. If you are prescribed oxycodone with any other medication such as acetaminophen please conduct a cold water extraction, or CWE. This gets ride of the acetaminophen.

  • Do not drive or operate machinery while under the influence of oxycodone
  • Do not consume alcohol or other CNSCentral Nervous System Depressants while under the influence of Oxycodone

Warning

Excessive alcohol/grapefruit juice (drinking while taking oxycodone, especially drugs that contain APAP, such as percocet) can cause liver damage, other severe medical conditions, and even death. These potentiators may potentiate Oxycodone dangerously high for someone with a low-tolerance.

Chemistry and Pharmacology

Oxycodone's chemical name is derived from codeine. The chemical structures are very similar, differing only in that

  • Oxycodone has a hydroxyl group at carbon-14 (codeine has just a hydrogen in its place)
  • Oxycodone has a 7,8-dihydro feature. Codeine has a double bond between those two carbons; and
  • Oxycodone has a carbonyl group (as in ketones) in place of the hydroxyl group of codeine.

It is also similar to hydrocodone, differing only in that it has a hydroxyl group at carbon-14.

Source


"Oxycodone". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 3 April 2011.

Legal status

General

  • Oxycodone is subject to international conventions on narcotic drugs. In addition, oxycodone is subject to national laws that differ by country. The 1931 Convention for Limiting the Manufacture and Regulating the Distribution of Narcotic Drugs of the League of Nations included oxycodone. The 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of the United Nations, which replaced the 1931 convention, categorized oxycodone in Schedule I.[46] Global restrictions on Schedule I drugs include "limit[ing] exclusively to medical and scientific purposes the production, manufacture, export, import, distribution of, trade in, use and possession of" these drugs; "requir[ing] medical prescriptions for the supply or dispensation of [these] drugs to individuals"; and "prevent[ing] the accumulation" of quantities of these drugs "in excess of those required for the normal conduct of business".

Australia

  • Oxycodone is in Schedule I (derived from the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs) of the Commonwealth's Narcotic Drugs Act 1967.[47] In addition, it is in Schedule 8 of the Australian Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons ("Poisons Standard"), meaning it is a "controlled drug... which should be available for use but require[s] restriction of manufacture, supply, distribution, possession and use to reduce abuse, misuse and physical or psychological dependence".

Canada

  • Oxycodone is a controlled substance under Schedule I of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA).

America

  • Schedule 2, available only by prescription

Germany

  • The drug is in Appendix III of the Narcotics Act (Betäubungsmittelgesetz or BtMG).[56] The law allows only physicians, dentists, and veterinarians (Ärzte, Zahnärzte und Tierärzte) can prescribe oxycodone, and the federal government can regulate the prescriptions (e.g., by requiring reporting).

Hong Kong

  • Oxycodone is regulated under Part I of Schedule 1 of Hong Kong's Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance.

Singapore

  • Oxycodone is listed as a Class A drug in the Misuse of Drugs Act of Singapore, which means offences in relation to the drug attract the most severe level of punishment. A conviction for unauthorized manufacture of the drug attracts a minimum sentence of 10 years of imprisonment and corporal punishment of five strokes of the cane, and a maximum sentence of life imprisonment or 30 years of imprisonment and 15 strokes of the cane.[58] The minimum and maximum penalties for unauthorized trafficking in the drug are respectively five years of imprisonment and five strokes of the cane, and 20 years of imprisonment and 15 strokes of the cane.

United Kingdom

  • Oxycodone is a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act. For Class A drugs, which are "considered to be the most likely to cause harm", possession without a prescription is punishable by up to seven years in prison, an unlimited fine, or both. Dealing of the drug illegally is punishable by up to life imprisonment, an unlimited fine, or both. In addition, oxycodone is a Schedule 2 drug per the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001 which "provide certain exemptions from the provisions of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971".

The Netherlands

  • Oxycodone is listed in list 1 of the Opium Law, meaning it is a hard drug associated with high health risks. However, doctors are still able to prescribe oxycodone under the Medicine Law.


Sources


"United Nations conference for the adoption of a single convention on narcotic drugs. Final act" (PDF). 1961. Retrieved 2009-04-04.

Commonwealth of Australia. "Narcotic Drugs Act 1967 – first schedule". Australasian Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 2009-04-06.

Australian Government. Department of Health and Aging. Therapeutic Goods Administration (June 2008). Standard for the uniform scheduling of drugs and poisons no. 23 (PDF). Canberra:

Commonwealth of Australia. ISBN 1-74186-596-4. Retrieved 2009-04-06.

Canada Department of Justice (2009-02-27). "Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (1996, c. 19)". Retrieved 2009-03-23.

Martin, Kevin. Lawsuit attacks OxyContin use. C-Health. Sun Media (2008-08-08)

German Federal Ministry of Justice (2009-01-19). "Act on the circulation of narcotics (Narcotics Act – BtMG)" (in German). Retrieved 2009-04-06.

Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of China. "Dangerous drugs ordinance – chapter 134". Hong Kong Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 2009-04-08.

Misuse of Drugs Act (Cap. 185, 2008 Rev. Ed.) (Singapore), section 6(1).

Misuse of Drugs Act (Singapore), section 5(1).

"List of drugs currently controlled under the Misuse of Drugs legislation". UK. Home Office. 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-08.

"Class A, B and C drugs". UK. Home Office. Retrieved 2009-04-08.

"Statutory instrument 2001 No. 3998. The Misuse of Drugs regulations 2001". UK. Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 2009-04-08.

"DEA Diversion Control CSA". US Dept of Justice - DEA. Retrieved 23 May 2013.

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