The Pima and 0'odham (= Papago) Indians both

use the name jievut hiawsik, «earth flower;' to refer

to lichens that live on rocks. One species, which

unfortunately has not been identified botanically,

exudes a strong scent, has an ashen gray color, and

lives on rocks and old, dry wood. The lichen once

had a religious significance. It was mixed with

tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and smoked during

the summer dances (cf. kinnikinnick). It is said to

have an effect similar to that of marijuana (Cannabis

indica) and to "make young men crazy." The

Pima believe that a man can conquer any woman

after he has smoked the lichen (Curtin 1984, 77).

Until now, lichens have been almost completely

unknown as psychoactive substances in ethnopharmacology

(cf. Dictyonema). Recendy, beard

lichens have found use as incense.
Literature

Curtin, 1. S. M. 1984. By the prophet ofthe earth:

Ethnobotany ofthe Pima. Tucson: University of

Arizona Press.

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