A

AgonistA substance that initiates a physiological response when combined with a receptor.

A substance that initiates a physiological response when combined with a receptor.

AntagonistA substance that interferes with or inhibits the physiological action of another.

A substance that interferes with or inhibits the physiological action of another.

C

CannabinoidChemicals produced naturally that bind to cannabinoid receptors. They are involved in a variety of mental and physical processes, including pain regulation, food intake, and reward.

Chemicals produced naturally that bind to cannabinoidChemicals produced naturally that bind to cannabinoid receptors. They are involved in a variety of mental and physical processes, including pain regulation, food intake, and reward. receptors. They are involved in a variety of mental and physical processes, including pain regulation, food intake, and reward.

CathinoneCathinone, or Benzoylethanamine is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat) and is chemically similar to ephedrine, cathine and other amphetamines. Cathinone differs from amphetamine by possessing a ketone oxygen atom on the β position of the side chain.

CathinoneCathinone, or Benzoylethanamine is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat) and is chemically similar to ephedrine, cathine and other amphetamines. Cathinone differs from amphetamine by possessing a ketone oxygen atom on the β position of the side chain., or Benzoylethanamine is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat) and is chemically similar to ephedrine, cathine and other amphetamines. CathinoneCathinone, or Benzoylethanamine is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat) and is chemically similar to ephedrine, cathine and other amphetamines. Cathinone differs from amphetamine by possessing a ketone oxygen atom on the β position of the side chain. differs from amphetamine by possessing a ketone oxygen atom on the β position of the side chain.

Chirality

The term chiralThe term chiral describes an object, especially a molecule, which has or produces a non-superimposeable mirror image of itself. describes an object, especially a molecule, which has or produces a non-superimposeable mirror image of itself.

D

DopamineA neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention, learning, and the brain’s pleasure and reward system.

A neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention, learning, and the brain’s pleasure and reward system.

E

EnantiomerOne of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical). Think of it like the left and right hand, which are identical aside from orientation.

One of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical). Think of it like the left and right hand, which are identical aside from orientation.

F

First pass metabolism

First pass metabolism is the process in which the liver starts to break down drugs before they reach systemic circulation. Different ROACommon abbreviation for Route Of Administration, used to describe the various different methods of ingesting drugs, including oral, insufflation, sublingual/buccal, rectal, vaginal, intramuscular (IM) and intravenous (IV) injection.'s including insufflation are used to bypass this process to increase potency.

G

GABAGamma aminobutyric acid an amino acid that is found in the central nervous system; acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Gamma aminobutyric acid an amino acid that is found in the central nervous system; acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter.

GABAGamma aminobutyric acid an amino acid that is found in the central nervous system; acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. receptor

The GABAGamma aminobutyric acid an amino acid that is found in the central nervous system; acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAGamma aminobutyric acid an amino acid that is found in the central nervous system; acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter.).

I

Inverse agonistA substance that initiates a physiological response when combined with a receptor.

An inverse agonistA substance that initiates a physiological response when combined with a receptor. is an agent that binds to the same receptor as an agonistA substance that initiates a physiological response when combined with a receptor. but induces a pharmacological response opposite to that agonistA substance that initiates a physiological response when combined with a receptor. (i.e. Naloxone).

IsomerEach of two or more compounds with the same formula but a different arrangement of atoms in the molecule and different properties.

Each of two or more compounds with the same formula but a different arrangement of atoms in the molecule and different properties.

M

MAOIMonoamine oxidase inhibitor are drugs that inhibit the action of monoamine oxidase in the brain and so allow monoamines to accumulate.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitor any of a group of antidepressant drugs that inhibit the action of monoamine oxidase in the brain and so allow monoamines to accumulate.

Monoamine Oxidase

An enzyme that catalyzes the metabolism of many drugs (e.g., DMT, dopamineA neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention, learning, and the brain’s pleasure and reward system. and serotoninA monoamine neurotransmitter, biochemically derived from tryptophan, that is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being.).

N

NMDAN-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. NMDA antagonists are often dissociatives. receptor

A glutamate receptor, is the predominant molecular device for controlling synaptic plasticity and memory function.

Nootropics

These are a class of drugs that work by increasing levels of either/or neurotransmitters, enzymes, hormones, oxygen supply, and/or stimulating nerve growth. They are generaly neuroprotective, and extremely non-toxic.

NorepinephrineNorepinephrine, or noradrenaline, is a catecholamine with multiple roles including as a hormone and a neurotransmitter.

NorepinephrineNorepinephrine, or noradrenaline, is a catecholamine with multiple roles including as a hormone and a neurotransmitter., or noradrenaline, is a catecholamine with multiple roles including as a hormone and a neurotransmitter.

P

PhenethylaminePhenethylamine (PEA) is a natural monoamine alkaloid, trace amine, and psychoactive drug with stimulant effects. In the mammalian central nervous system, phenethylamine is believed to function as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter.

PhenethylaminePhenethylamine (PEA) is a natural monoamine alkaloid, trace amine, and psychoactive drug with stimulant effects. In the mammalian central nervous system, phenethylamine is believed to function as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter. (PEA) is a natural monoamine alkaloid, trace amine, and psychoactive drug with stimulant effects. In the mammalian central nervous system, phenethylaminePhenethylamine (PEA) is a natural monoamine alkaloid, trace amine, and psychoactive drug with stimulant effects. In the mammalian central nervous system, phenethylamine is believed to function as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter. is believed to function as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter.

PhenethylaminePhenethylamine (PEA) is a natural monoamine alkaloid, trace amine, and psychoactive drug with stimulant effects. In the mammalian central nervous system, phenethylamine is believed to function as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter. (substituted)

The substituted phenethylamines are a family of chemical compounds that contain the 2-phenylethylamine chemical structure and also have additional modifications at the phenyl ring, sidechain, and/or amino group (i.e. MDMA).

R

Re-uptake inhibitor

Also known as a transporter blocker, is a drug which inhibits the transporter-mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron, leading to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter.

Release

A releasing agent (RA), or simply releaserA releasing agent (RA), or simply releaser, is a drug that induces the release of a neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron into the synapse, leading to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter., is a drug that induces the release of a neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron into the synapse, leading to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter.

Research Chemical

Designer drugs, a term used to describe drugs which are created (or marketed, if they had already existed) to get around existing drug laws, usually by modifying the molecular structures of existing drugs to varying degrees, or less commonly by finding drugs with entirely different chemical.

ROACommon abbreviation for Route Of Administration, used to describe the various different methods of ingesting drugs, including oral, insufflation, sublingual/buccal, rectal, vaginal, intramuscular (IM) and intravenous (IV) injection.

Common abbreviation for Route Of Administration, used to describe the various different methods of ingesting drugs, including oral, insufflation, sublingual/buccal, rectal, intramuscular (IM) and intravenous (IV) injection.

S

SerotoninA monoamine neurotransmitter, biochemically derived from tryptophan, that is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being. (5-HT)

A monoamine neurotransmitter, biochemically derived from tryptophan, that is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and central nervous system (CNSCentral Nervous System) of humans and animals. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being.

T

Tryptamine

Tryptamine is a monoamine alkaloid found in plants, fungi, and animals. It is based around the indole ring structure, and is chemically related to the amino acid tryptophan, from which its name is derived.

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