Other Names

r3-phenethylamines, PEAs, 2-phenethylamines

r3-phenethylamines are derivatives of phenethylaminePhenethylamine (PEA) is a natural monoamine alkaloid, trace amine, and psychoactive drug with stimulant effects. In the mammalian central nervous system, phenethylamine is believed to function as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter.

(Shulgin 1979). The biogenic 2-phenethylaminePhenethylamine (PEA) is a natural monoamine alkaloid, trace amine, and psychoactive drug with stimulant effects. In the mammalian central nervous system, phenethylamine is believed to function as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter.

(PEA) dilates the blood vessels in the brain

and consequently can, under certain circumstances,

cause headaches or migraines (cf. Theobroma

cacao). The most well-known psychoactive r3phenethylamine

is mescaline, a component of

numerous cacti.

Many cacti (including Gymnocactus Spp.490 and

Opuntia spp.) contain phenethylamines that are

structurally very similar to mescaline but whose

effects are practically unknown (West et al. 1974).

It is quite possible that such substances as candicine

(Trichocereus spp.), hordenine (Ariocarpus

spp., Opuntia clavata Eng.; cf. Meyer et al. 1980

and· Vanderveen et al. 1974), and macromerine

(Coryphantha spp.) produce psychoactive effects

when used at the appropriate dosages. This area

still offers many opportunities for experimental

human pharmacology (Heffter technique). Such

experimentation could, for example, lead to a

psychoactive use of the South American Notocactus

ottonis (Lehm.) Berg. [syn. Parodia ottonis]

(cf. Hecht 1995,82), a cactus that is often found at

places where cacti are sold, is very easy to grow,

and contains hordenine (Shulgin 1995, 16*). The

genus Lobivia also contains hordenine (Follas et al.

1977).

Hordenine and related substances (occasionally

in high concentrations) are also found in other

plants, such as the Himalayan Leguminosae Desmodium tiliaefolium G. Don (Ghosal and

Srivastava 1973).

Numerous phenethylamines that have psychoactive

effects (both empathogenic and/or psychedelic)

have been synthesized (e.g., MDMA, MDA,

MMDA, MDE, 2-CB, et cetera; cf. Shulgin and

Shulgin 1991*).
Literature

See also the entries for mescaline.

Pallas, W. D., J. M. Cassidy, and J. 1. McLaughlin.

1977. l3-phenethylamines from the cactus genus

Lobivia. Phytochemistry 16:1459-60.

Ghosal, S., and R. S. Srivastava. 1973.I3-phenethylaminePhenethylamine (PEA) is a natural monoamine alkaloid, trace amine, and psychoactive drug with stimulant effects. In the mammalian central nervous system, phenethylamine is believed to function as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter.,

tetrahydroisoquinoline and indole

alkaloids of Desmodium tilaefolium.

Phytochemistry 12:193-97.

Meyer, Brian N., Yehia A. H. Mohamed, and Jerry 1.

McLaughlin. 1980. J3-phenethylamines from the

cactus genus Opuntia. Phytochemistry 19:719-20.

Shulgin, Alexander T. 1979. Chemistry of

phenethylamines related to mescaline. Journal of

Psychedelic Drugs 11 (1-2): 41-52.

Vanderveen, Randall 1., Leslie C. West, and Jerry 1.

McLaughlin. 1974. N-methyltryramine from

Opuntia clavata. Phytochemistry13:866-67.

West, Leslie G., Randell 1. Vanderveen, and Jerry 1.

McLaughlin. 1974. l3-phenethylamines from the

genus Gymnocactus. Phytochemistry 3:665-66.

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