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=== History ===
 
=== History ===
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The first benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which has also marketed diazepam (Valium) since 1963.
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Source: Shorter E (2005). "Benzodiazepines". A Historical Dictionary of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press. pp. 41–2. ISBN 0-19-517668-5.
  
 
== Dosage ==  
 
== Dosage ==  

Revision as of 20:32, 20 June 2013


General Information

Classification: Downer/Sedative/Anxiolytic

History

The first benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which has also marketed diazepam (Valium) since 1963.

Source: Shorter E (2005). "Benzodiazepines". A Historical Dictionary of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press. pp. 41–2. ISBN 0-19-517668-5.

Dosage

Comparison of benzodiazepines
Chemical name (brand name) Half-Life [Active Metabolites] Dose Equiv. of 10mg Diazepam (Oral) Class
Alprazolam (Xanax) 6 - 12 hours 0.5 mg Anxiolytic
Bromazepam (Lexotan, Lexomil) 10 - 20 hours 5 - 6 mg Anxiolytic
Chlordazepoxide (Librium) 5 - 30 hours [36 - 200 hours] 25 mg Anxiolytic
Clobazam (Frisium) 12 - 60 hours 20 mg Anxiolytic
Clonazepam (Klonopin) 18 - 50 hours 0.5 mg Anxiolytic
Clorazepate (Tranxene) [36 - 200 hours] 15 mg Anxiolytic
Diazepam (Valium) 20 - 100 hours [36 - 200 hours] 10 mg Anxiolytic
Estazolam (ProSom, Nuctalon) 10 - 24 hours 1 - 2 mg Hypnotic
Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) 18 - 26 hours [36 - 200 hours] 1 mg Hypnotic
Flurazepam (Dalmane) [40 - 250 hours] 15 - 30 mg Hypnotic
Halazepam (Paxipam) [30 - 100 hours] 20 mg Anxiolytic
Ketazolam (Paxipam) 30 - 100 hours [36 - 200 hours] 15 - 30 mg Anxiolytic
Loprazolam (Dormonoct) 6 - 12 hours 1 - 2 mg Hypnotic
Lorazepam (Ativan) 10 - 20 hours 1 mg Anxiolytic
Lormetazepam (Noctamid) 10 - 12 hours 1 - 2 mg Hypnotic
Medazepam (Nobrium) 36 - 200 hours 10 mg Anxiolytic
Nitrazepam (Mogadon) 15 - 38 hours 10 mg Hypnotic
Nordazepam (Nordaz) 36 - 200 hours 10 mg Anxiolytic
Oxazepam (Serax) 4 - 15 hours 20 mg Anxiolytic
Prazepam (Centrax) [36 - 200 hours] 10 - 20 mg Anxiolytic
Quazepam (Doral) 25 - 100 hours 20 mg Hypnotic
Temazepam (Restoril) 8 - 22 hours 20 mg Hypnotic
Triazolam (Halcion) 2 hours 0.5 mg Hypnotic
Non-benzodiazepines commonly referred to as Z-drugs
Chemical name (brand name) Half-Life [Active Metabolites] Dose Equiv. of 10mg Diazepam (Oral) Class
Zaleplon (Sonata) 2 hours 20 mg Hypnotic
Zolpidem (Ambien) 2 hours 20 mg Hypnotic
Zopiclone (Imovane) 5 - 6 hours 15 mg Hypnotic
Eszopiclone (Lunesta) 6 hours 3 mg Hypnotic

Oral

Onset:

Alprazolam IR : 8-25 minutes

Alprazolam XR : 25-75 minutes

Diazepam : Rapid

Clonazapam : 1 hour

Lorazepam : 1-2 hours

Peak Benefit:

Diazepam : 1.6 hours

Alprazolam IR : 90 minutes

Alprazolam XR : 25-75 minutes

Diazepam : 2-4 hours

Clonazapam : 1-4 hours

Half/Life and Duration

Triazolam : 2.5 Hours

Lorazepam : 10-20 hours - 6-12 hour duration

Alprazolam IR : 11 hour half life - 5 hour duration

Alprazolam XR :11-16 hour hour half life, 11 hour duration

Diazepam : 20-100 hour half life - 6-8 hour duration

Clonazepam : 18-50 hour half life - 12+ hours

Dosages Depend on tolerance.

Potentiators:

-Grapefruit juice

Avoid:

-Excessive drinking (you will die)

Smoked

Duration: X hours

Onset: X minutes

Low dose: X mg

Medium (typical) dose: X mg

High dose: X mg

Insufflated

NOT RECOMMENDED

Duration: X hours

Onset: X minutes

Low dose: X mg

Medium (typical) dose: X mg

High dose: X mg

Injected

NOT RECOMMENDED

Duration: X hours

Onset: X minutes

Low dose: X mg

Medium (typical) dose: X mg

High dose: X mg

Effects

Positive

  • Stress Relief
  • Anxiety Relief
  • Social Anxiety
  • PTSD
  • Sedative
  • Worries drift away
  • That "sink into the couch" feeling

Neutral

Negative

  • High addiction potential
  • Killer withdrawals
  • Risk of blackout
  • Inability to drink
  • Inability to dirve
  • Loss of balance
  • Memory Loss
  • Procrastination

After effects

  • "Hangover"?
  • Afterglow
  • Long term effects
  • High addiction potential

Harm Reduction

  • Avoid driving and operating heavy machinery
  • Recommended time (pauses) between using the substance
  • Addiction potential - High
  • Risk of blackouts
  • Risk of death when mixed with alcohol
  • Mental illness?
  • Heart issues?
  • CNSCentral Nervous System depressant when mixed with other drugs

Chemistry and Pharmacology

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Images

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Asia

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