(Reworded, reformatted, added citation to original 1993 study by Schmeda-Hirshmann.)
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The dried root of this manioc species, which is known as sienejna, is used by the Ayoreo Indians of Paraguay to initiate a shaman (naijna) so that he can communicate with the spirits (SchmedaHirschmann 1993, 108*). But not all of the Ayoreo believe that this plant works. It is said that the shaman feels as though he is drunk when he smokes sienejna. In this state, the spirits of the animals (especially those of iguanas, poisonous snakes, and birds) meet him in the shape of small people so that they may let him know of their whereabouts (Schmeda-Hirschmann 1993, 109*). Smoking experiments, however, have not revealed any type of hallucinogenic or other psychotropic effect (Schmeda-Hirschmann 1993, 111*). Chemical studies and other experiments are still needed.  
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The dried root of the manioc species ''Manihot anomala'', known as sienejna, is used by the Ayoreo Indians of Paraguay to initiate a ''naijna'' (shaman), allowing communication with the spirits.<ref>Schmeda-Hirshmann, [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/037887419390025Z "Magic and medicinal plants of the Ayoreos of the Chaco Boreal (Paraguay)"], ''Journal of Ethnopharmacology'', June 1993. Retrieved 5th September 2016.</ref>
  
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Not all of the Ayoreo believe that this plant works, however it is said that the shaman feels effects similar to drunkenness when sienejna is smoked. In this state, the spirits of the animals (especially those of iguanas, poisonous snakes, and birds) meet him in the shape of small people so that they may let him know of their whereabouts.<ref>Schmeda-Hirshmann, [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/037887419390025Z "Magic and medicinal plants of the Ayoreos of the Chaco Boreal (Paraguay)"], ''Journal of Ethnopharmacology'', June 1993. Retrieved 5th September 2016.</ref>
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Smoking experiments, however, have not revealed any type of hallucinogenic or other psychotropic effect.<ref>Schmeda-Hirshmann, [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/037887419390025Z "Magic and medicinal plants of the Ayoreos of the Chaco Boreal (Paraguay)"], ''Journal of Ethnopharmacology'', June 1993. Retrieved 5th September 2016.</ref> Further study is required.
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==References==
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<references />
  
 
[[Category:Ethnobotanical]]
 
[[Category:Ethnobotanical]]

Revision as of 23:45, 5 September 2016

The dried root of the manioc species Manihot anomala, known as sienejna, is used by the Ayoreo Indians of Paraguay to initiate a naijna (shaman), allowing communication with the spirits.[1]

Not all of the Ayoreo believe that this plant works, however it is said that the shaman feels effects similar to drunkenness when sienejna is smoked. In this state, the spirits of the animals (especially those of iguanas, poisonous snakes, and birds) meet him in the shape of small people so that they may let him know of their whereabouts.[2]

Smoking experiments, however, have not revealed any type of hallucinogenic or other psychotropic effect.[3] Further study is required.

References

  1. Schmeda-Hirshmann, "Magic and medicinal plants of the Ayoreos of the Chaco Boreal (Paraguay)", Journal of Ethnopharmacology, June 1993. Retrieved 5th September 2016.
  2. Schmeda-Hirshmann, "Magic and medicinal plants of the Ayoreos of the Chaco Boreal (Paraguay)", Journal of Ethnopharmacology, June 1993. Retrieved 5th September 2016.
  3. Schmeda-Hirshmann, "Magic and medicinal plants of the Ayoreos of the Chaco Boreal (Paraguay)", Journal of Ethnopharmacology, June 1993. Retrieved 5th September 2016.

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