Agaricaceae: Strophariaceae; Stropharioideae Tribe,

Semilanceata = Cyanescens Section


Geophila cyanescens (Maire) Kuhner et Rom.

Hypholoma coprinifacies (Rolland ex Herink)


Hypholoma cyanescens Maire

Psilocybe bohemica Sebek (cf. Psilocybe spp.)

Psilocybe mairei Sing.

Psilocybe serbica Moser et Horak

Folk Names

Blaufarbender kahlkopf, blauwwordend kaalkopje

(Dutch), blue halos, bohmischer kahlkopf, oink,

wavy caps, zauberpilz, zyanescens

This 'mushroom is most easily recognized on the

basis of its peculiar wavy cap. It lives not on dung

but on the remains of plants, rotting wood, and

humus-rich soils. In older mushroom guides, it

often appears under the name Hyphaloma cyanescens

(Cooper 1980, 18**). It is native to North

America and central Europe and is found even in

Hamburg (Findeisen 1982):

This species settles on wood chips, which are

often lying directly on the ground, so that the

mushroom appears to sprout directly out of

the earth. It is found primarily in parks in the

Pacific Northwest, often in fairy circles, in

amounts of up to 100 pounds. These mushrooms

are one of the most potent species

known and contain psilocybin and psilocin in

amounts of up to 2% dry weight. (Gartz in

Rippchen 1993, 70*)

Gartz (1994, 19**) found that specimens

grown in Germany contain approximately 0.3%

psilocybin, 0.50/0 psilocin, and 0.01% baeocystin

by dry weight.

In central Europe, Psilocybe cyanescens is used

in rituals in precisely the same manner as

Psilocybe semilanceata (Liggenstorfer 1996). Here,

cultivated mushrooms that contain a very high

concentration of psilocybin are consumed. A

visionary dosage is regarded as 1 g dry weight.

See also the entries for the other Psilocybe species

and for psilocybin.

Findeisen, Lotte. 1982. Psilocybe serbica Moser et

Horak, ein blauender Kahlkopf. Berichte des

Botanischen Vereins zu Hamburg, no. 4: 27-29.

Kriegelsteiner, G. J. 1984. Studien zum Psilocybecyanescens-

Komplex in Europa. Beitriige zur

Kenntnis der Pilze in Mitteleuropa 1:61-94.

---. 1986. Studien zum Psilocybe-cyanescenscallosasemilanceata-

Komplex in Europa. Beitrage

zur Kenntnis der Pilze in Mitteleuropa 2:57-72.

Liggenstorfer, Roger. 1996. Oink, der kosmische

Kicherfaktor. In Maria Sabina-Botin der heiligen

Pilze, ed. Roger Liggenstorfer and Christian

R~itsch, 179-82. Solothurn: Nachtschatten Verlag.

Moser, M., and E. Horak. 1968. Psilocybe serbica spec.

nov., eine neue Psilocybin und Psilocin bildende

Art aus Serbien. ZeitschriJt fur Pilzkunde


Miiller, G. K., and Jochen Gartz. 1986. Psilocybe

cyanescens-eine weitere halluzinogene

Kahlkopfart in der DDR. Mykologisches

Mitteilungsblatt 29:33-35.

Tjallingii-Beukers, D. 1976. Een blauwwordernde

Psilocybe (Psilocybe cyanescens Wakefield 1946).

Coolia 19:38-43.

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