Stimulants induce temporary improvements in either mental or physical functions or both, increasing the functioning of the central nervous system. They are also occasionally referred to collectively as 'uppers.'
Stimulants have a long history of human use, with cocaine having been used for thousands of years in its plant form in South America, for the purposes of wakefulness and recreation; it also saw heavy use in the Western world during the 19th century when it was sold as a drug to combat fatigue, as well as being used during medical procedures as a local anaesthetic. Amphetamines were first developed and used medically for the same reasons in the early 20th century, and remain heavily prescribed to this day. Today, stimulants are also widely and legally used without prescription across the world in the form of caffeine and nicotine, along with continuing illicit use of other common stimulants.
For more details refer to specific categories or substances.
Further and more serious issues can arise following a binge or during withdrawals from stimulants, see the Quick Guide to Stimulant Comedowns for more information.
The vast majority of stimulants carry a high risk of habituation and addiction when abused. Depending on the chemical and degree of abuse, withdrawal symptoms for a habituated user vary in effect, duration and intensity; see the Quick Guide to Stimulant Comedowns for more information.
The harms of stimulants come in two general classes: 1) Harms that come from the direct pharmacology of the substance and 2) Harms that come from the behaviors exihibited by stimulant users.
Many stimulants can be vaporized or insufflated. This can cause damage to the nasal lining, oral mucosa and lungs. Ensuring that equipment is clean and sterile can prevent infection as well as making sure pipes are free of cracks and defects. As stimulants place extra strain on the cardiovascular system, it is advised that those who have pre-existing heart conditions or damage avoid stimulant use entirely.
Additionally methods that cause levels of the drug to increase rapidly and decline rapidly are prone to redose compulsion. Most stimulants are well absorbed orallyRoute of administration in which the subject swallows a substance., and this should be the prefered roa if possible.
Sleep deprivation is also a common side effect of stimulant use, and prolonged sleep deprivation can lead to more serious conditions such as psychosis or sudden death. Long acting stimulants are best dosed once in the early morning as to avoid any intereference with sleep. It is important to get normal levels of sleep every night. A sleep deficit take much longer to recover from than to create.
Most stimulants strongly suppress apetite. It is important to get enough macro and micronutrients while using stimulants. While tolerant users will have less problems eating normal foods, newer users can find themselves unable to eat at all. Easy to eat foods should be obtained prior to stimulant use so they can be eaten as needed. Fruit and cereal grains can provide needed starch and sugar. Protiens and fats can be obtained from yogurt, nuts, or commercial trail mix.
It can be easy to neglect the needs of your body while using stimulants. Stimulants often cause xerostomia which is exasperated by contantly drinking sugary liquids. Water is the best fluid for hydration and does not promote decay. After eating or drinking caloric liquids it is important to brush your teeth. BruxingGrinding or clenching of the teeth is a common side effect of stimulant use. Sugar-free gum or custom occlusal guards can be obtained to limit the impact of bruxingGrinding or clenching of the teeth not only on your teeth but also on the muscles of the jaw and neck.
Stimulants can be directly neurotoxic, and tend to cause progressive harm over time to the cardiovascular system. Be sure to research the toxicity of any new stimulant you use, especially when using novel stimulants. Harm tends to be correleted strongly with dose and frequency of use, reduce these if at all possible.