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Latest revision as of 11:08, 22 December 2017

Piracetam was the first Racetam created, and has since served as the basis for other more potent racetams created after its discovery in 1964. It has been known as a "staple" in the nootropicNootropics, also referred to as smart drugs, memory enhancers, neuro enhancers, cognitive enhancers, and intelligence enhancers, are drugs, supplements, nutraceuticals, and functional foods that purportedly improve mental functions such as cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation, attention, and concentration. They are generally neuroprotective, and non-toxic. community, along with caffeine.

History

Piracetam was first synthesized in 1964 by scientists at the Belgian pharmaceutical company UCB, led by Corneliu E. Giurgeal, who were struck by its ability to boost mental functioning in healthy individuals along with its apparent safety, Fiurgea coined the term nootropics to describe it and similar substances.

Piracetam (Trade name "Nootropil") was launched clinically by UCB in the early 1970's, and is now used in many European countries.

Usage

Piracetam has wide variety of uses, varying from Clotting to Depression to Cerebral trauma. However, it is primarily used off-label as a nootropicNootropics, also referred to as smart drugs, memory enhancers, neuro enhancers, cognitive enhancers, and intelligence enhancers, are drugs, supplements, nutraceuticals, and functional foods that purportedly improve mental functions such as cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation, attention, and concentration. They are generally neuroprotective, and non-toxic.. It has a history of being used to treat cognitive impairment; according to a meta-analysis of human studies, it improves general cognition when given as a supplement to people in a state of cognitive decline. Piracetam enhances cellular membrane fludity - this mechanism explains why Piracetam is able to improve cognition. Piracetam is as effective as aspirin when it comes to preventing blood clotting, which makes it a useful supplement after cardiovasular trauma.

Dosage

Dosages from 400mg to 4800mgs are considered safe. Some literature recommend an "attack dose" in the range of 1600mg to 2400mg for the first few days to initiate a response in people seeking cognitive enhancing effects. Start with a low-normal dose around 800mg's. Some report that they could feel strong effects at 800mg's on the first day. On subsequent days at the same dosage the effects were not as noticable. It is unclear wheather "optimal" benefits are obtained from daily use over time or if occasional use has the most benefits. If possible work with your doctor.

Duration

It is recommended to take three times daily, at 800mg-1600mg. The duration is around 3-5 hours.

Effects

It's recommended to take a Choline source with Piracetam and most other Racetams.

Postive

  • Help with memory recollection
  • Spatial memory
  • Learning capacities
  • Intelligence boost (In some)

Neutral

  • Increased libido
  • hypersexuality

Negative

  • Anxiety
  • Insomnia
  • Irritability
  • Headaches (Which can usually be avoided with Choline)
  • Agitation
  • Nervousness
  • Tremors
  • Hyperkinesia

After Effects

There may be discontinuation symptoms if used for a prolonged period of time, it is recommended to taper in these situations.

Harm Reduction

Start low with this substance and work your way up to your "optimal" dosage. As with most of the Racetam family, it will take a week or more to reach full effects.

Check out our Drug Combinations page and chart for interactions and combinations of common drugs.

See Dissociative Harm Reduction for general information.

Potentiators

Piracetam is said to increase the effects of alcohol and amphetamines. It's recommended that alcohol be avoided as one of the reported effects of piracetam is increased flow of blood to the brain, which could increase damage and intoxication. Piracetam supposedly reduces the effects of dissociatives.

Chemistry and Pharmacology

IUPAC: 2-(2-oxopyrroliin-1-yl)acetamide.

Shares the same 2-oxo-pyrrolidone base structure as Pyroglutamic Acid. It is the cyclic derivative of GABAGamma aminobutyric acid an amino acid that is found in the central nervous system; acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter..

It's MOA is not fully understood (as with most Racetams). The drug influences neuronal and vascular functions and influences cognitive function without acting as a sedative or stimulant. A positive allosteric modulator of the AMPA receptor. It is hypothesized to act on ion channels, thus leading to an increased neuron excitability. It has been found to increase blood flow and oxygen consumption in parts of the brain but this may be a side effect of increased brain activity, rather than a primary effects of MOA of the drug.

Piracetam improves the function of the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine via Nuscarinic Cholinergic (ACh) receptors, which are implicated in memory processes. It may have an effect on NMDAN-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. NMDA antagonists are often dissociatives. glutamate receptors, which are involved with learning and memory processes. It is also thought to increase cell membrane permeability. It also may exert its global effect of brain neurotransmission via modulation of ion channels. While in the brain, it appears to increase the synthesis of cytochrome b5, which is a part of the electron transport mechanism in mitochondria. But in the brain, it also increases the permeability of the mitochondria of some intermediaries of the Krebs Cycle.

Some research shows that it may be clinically useful in treating alcoholism and alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

LD50The dosage of a substance at which 50% of the exposed subjects does not survive. To estimate the LD50 for humans, tests are conducted on non-human subjects.

In rats 5600mg/kg (Orally)

In mice 20000mg/kg (Orally)

Reactivity

It is stable at room temperature, best way to store would be in a cool place inside an amber vial.

Reactive with oxidizing agents.

Non-corrosive in presence of glass.

Polymerization

Does not occur.

Legal status

  • Australia: Prescription only.
  • UK: Prescription Only but not controlled.
  • US: Not FDA approved, yet is not prescribed. Legal to posses/use.

Links

Ref for LD50The dosage of a substance at which 50% of the exposed subjects does not survive. To estimate the LD50 for humans, tests are conducted on non-human subjects./Reactivity/Polymerization https://www.spectrumchemical.com/MSDS/P3941.PDF

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