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Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a potent, synthetic euphoric stimulant, which shares some of the empathogenic effects of MDMA and acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI). It is known for its tendency to cause compulsive redosing and some users report sexual arousal. MDPV (together with Methylone and Mephedrone) is one of the first substances that have been found in products sold as "bath salts", "plant food/fertilizer", and in some "ecstasy" pills.


MDPV was first developed in the 1960s by a team at Boehringer Ingelheim. It remained an obscure stimulant until around 2004 when it was reportedly sold as a designer drug. Products labeled as bath salts containing MDPV were previously sold as recreational drugs in gas stations and convenience stores in the United States, similar to the marketing for Spice and K2 as incense.



Light 4-10 mg
Common 8-15 mg
Strong 12-25 mg
Heavy >25 mg


Light 2-5 mg
Common 5-11 mg
Strong 10-20 mg
Heavy >20 mg



Onset 15-30 minutes
Coming-up 30-60 minutes
Peak 30-180 minutes
Coming-down 30-120 minutes
Total duration 2-7 hours
After-effects 2-48 hours


Onset 5-20 minutes
Coming-up 15-30 minutes
Peak 30-120 minutes
Coming-down 30-60 minutes
Total duration 2-3.5 hours
After-effects 2-48 hours



  • Stimulation (mental and physical)
  • Euphoria, mood lift
  • Increased sociability & talkativeness
  • Increased productivity and motivation
  • Increased mental clarity
  • Enhanced creativity
  • Feelings of empathy
  • Sexual arousal


  • Stimulation (mental and physical)
  • Mild elevation in heart rate


Llikelihood of negative side effects increases with higher doses.

  • Tightened jaw muscles, grinding teeth (trismus and bruxia)
  • Reduced enjoyment of eating & loss of appetite
  • Disturbed sleep patterns
  • Involuntary body movements (twitching, lip-smacking, etc.)
  • Confusion and/or scrambled thoughts
  • Gastrointestinal disturbance
  • Muscle tension
  • Residual depressed mood
  • Nystagmus & eye spasm
  • Anxiousness & nervousness & paranoia
  • Harsh comedown effects
  • Fiending (redosing repeatedly without planning to do so)
  • Excessive excitation & hyperactivity
  • Headache
  • Very elevated heart rate
  • Hallucinations & psychotic behavior (at high doses or with repeated use)

Harm Reduction

  • Avoid driving and operating heavy machinery
  • Recommended time (pauses) between using the substance

Chemistry and Pharmacology

Systematic name: (RS)-1-(Benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-one

MDPV is the 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted analog of the compound pyrovalerone, developed in the 1960s, which has been used for the treatment of chronic fatigue and as an anorectic, but caused problems of abuse and dependence. However, despite its structural similarity, the effects of MDPV bear little resemblance to other methylenedioxy phenylalkylamine derivatives such as 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA), instead producing primarily stimulant effects with only mild entactogenic qualities.

Legal status

MDPV is currently in Schedule I in the United States. This means it is illegal to manufacture, buy, possess, or distribute (sell, trade or give) without a DEA license.

MDPV is also illegal in Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Israel, Sweden and the UK.



Erowid MDPV Vault