Etizolam is a research chemical analogue of the benzodiazepine class of drugs - the benzene ring being replaced by a thiophene ring, making it a thienodiazepineClose analogues of benzodiazepines.. The drug largely shares the effect profile of benzodiazepine drugs (being both hypnotic and anxiolytic), however studies have shown some major differences between etizolam and the more traditional benzos used for treatments; it suffers much less from a rapid build-up of tolerance, and also has a larger range of observed side-effects with abuse.
The availability of Etizolam in the more general research chemical scene began around 2011, and attention has only increased since. Its prevalence is probably due to both the low cost of the drug (with 500-1000 standard doses costing around £100, and is available in bulk powder form for even less), and the highly addictive nature it shares with benzodiazepines.
Though relatively new to the recreational research chemical scene, etizolam differs from most other research chemicals in that it is actually approved and actively prescribed as a medical treatment for anxiety in many countries around the world (such as India) under brand names such as Etilaam and Etizest. Its origins as a medical drug are actually very unclear, though medical papers citing its use in the treatment of anxiety are recorded as early as the 90s.
Note: Duration can be significantly longer with higher doses.
As with other depressants, Etizolam should not be combined with any other CNSCentral Nervous System depressants (such as alcohol), at the risk of respiratory depression, which can lead to death.
See the Drug combinations chart for more information.
Etizolam is absorbed fairly rapidly, with peak plasma levels achieved between 30 minutes and 2 hours. It has a mean elimination half life of about 3.5 hours. Etizolam acts as a full agonistA substance that initiates a physiological response when combined with a receptor. at the benzodiazepine receptor to produce its range of therapeutic and adverse effects. In addition, etizolam, unlike most other benzodiazepines, has prolactogenic effects, leading to an increase in blood levels of prolactin, which is a protein that in humans is best known for its role in enabling female mammals to produce milk.
During a controlled clinical trial that compared the effectiveness of etizolam and several benzodiazepines for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, it was found that etizolam became more effective over time, implying a type of reverse tolerance.
The LD50The dosage of a substance at which 50% of the exposed subjects does not survive. To estimate the LD50 for humans, tests are conducted on non-human subjects. of Etizolam is currently unknown.
Etizolam is not controlled in the USA. However, it is a Schedule I drug in Arkansas and Mississippi.
Not controlled as of October 2014.
Controlled since 2013.