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[[Category:Stimulant]]
 
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<tr>
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<td valign="top" width="50%"><strong>Other Names</strong>
+
 
+
Benzoylecgoninmethylester, cocain, cocaIn, cocaina,
+
 
+
d-cocain, erythroxylin, kokain, methylbenzoylecgonine,
+
 
+
methylbenzylekgonin, (±)-methyl- [3J3benzoyloxy-
+
 
+
2a( 1aH,5aH)-tropancarboxylate], 0benzoyl-
+
 
+
[(- )-ekgonin] -methylester, 3-benzoyloxy8-
+
 
+
methyl-8-azabicyclo [3.2.1] octan-2-carboxylicacidmethylester,
+
 
+
3J3 -benzoyloxy-2J3 -tropancarboxylicacid-
+
 
+
methylester
+
 
+
<strong>Street Names</strong>
+
 
+
Autobahn, blow, C, candy, charlie, coca, coca pura
+
 
+
(Spanish, "pure coca»), coco, coke, cousin, donuts,
+
 
+
doppelter espresso, flake, koks, la blanca, lady
+
 
+
snow, la rubiecita, line, linie, mama coca, nasenpuder,
+
 
+
nose candy, peach, perica, puro (Spanish,
+
 
+
"pure»), schnee, schneewittchen, schniefe, schnupfschnee,
+
 
+
sniff, snow, snowwhite, strasse, strasschen,
+
 
+
Ziggy's stardust
+
 
+
Empirical formula: C17H21N04
+
 
+
Substance type: coca alkaloid
+
 
+
The cocaine molecule is structurally related to
+
 
+
tropine and other tropane alkaloids (Roth and
+
 
+
Fenner 1988, 311*). Today, cocaine is the most
+
 
+
consumed psychoactive plant constituent in the
+
 
+
world. Pure cocaine (as a base) is not water soluble
+
 
+
but can be dissolved in alcohol, chloroform,
+
 
+
turpentine oil, olive oil, or acetone. Cocaine salts
+
 
+
are water soluble.
+
 
+
<strong>
+
 
+
History</strong>
+
 
+
In 1860, the German chemist Albert Niemann first
+
 
+
isolated cocaine from the leaves of the Peruvian
+
 
+
coca bush (Erythroxylum coca). The German
+
 
+
pharmacist Friedrich Gaedeke (1855) may have
+
 
+
represented the alkaloid before this. By around
+
 
+
1870, cocaine was being used as an agent of
+
 
+
pleasure, and it was employed at this time to treat
+
 
+
alcohol and morphine withdrawal as well as
+
 
+
melancholy. The ophthalmologist Karl Koller, a
+
 
+
friend of Sigmund Freud, introduced cocaine as a
+
 
+
local anesthetic for eye surgery in 1884. Hermann
+
 
+
Goring's use of cocaine was famous, and Adolf
+
 
+
Hitler, who also used other stimulants (cf. strychnine),
+
 
+
is thought to have consumed cocaine as well
+
 
+
(Phillips and Wynne 1980, 112).
+
 
+
Later, other substances derived from cocaine,
+
 
+
including eucaine, procaine (= Novocaine), tetracaine
+
 
+
(= Pantocaine) (1930), lidocaine (= Xylocaine)
+
 
+
(1944), mepivacaine (= Scandicaine) (1957),
+
 
+
prilocain (= Xylonest) (1960), bupivacaine (1963),
+
 
+
and etidocain (= Duranest) (1972), were also used
+
 
+
as local anesthetics (Busch and Rummel 1990;
+
 
+
Schneider 1993, 19*). Holocaine was also regarded
+
 
+
as a substitute.
+
 
+
The goal of chemists and pharmacologists to
+
 
+
carve out the effective core of the cocaine
+
 
+
molecule and retain the desirable and remove
+
 
+
the undesirable effects was achieved in an
+
 
+
exemplary manner with the synthesis of procaine
+
 
+
(1905). (Busch and Rummel 1990, 490)
+
 
+
In 1923, Willstadter and his coworkers worked
+
 
+
out the complete synthesis of cocaine. The precursors
+
 
+
are succindialdehyde, methylamine, and
+
 
+
mono-methyl-J3-keto-glutarate. However, this synthesis
+
 
+
has never achieved pharmaceutical importance.
+
 
+
Practically speaking, all of the cocaine used
+
 
+
in the pharmaceutical industry is derived from the
+
 
+
coca plant. In 1976,410 kg of cocaine were legally
+
 
+
extracted for this purpose (Taschner and Richtberg
+
 
+
1982,64).
+
 
+
<strong>Production and Use</strong>
+
 
+
An analysis of thirteen South American Erythroxylum
+
 
+
species found that cocaine is present only
+
 
+
in Erythroxylum coca and Erythroxylum novogranatense
+
 
+
(Holmstedt et al. 1977). Hair analysis of
+
 
+
Egyptian mummies has revealed the presence of
+
 
+
ecgonin, the first metabolite of cocaine, which indicates
+
 
+
that the ancient Egyptians either consumed
+
 
+
cocaine or an unknown African plant that metabolizes
+
 
+
to ecgonin (Balabanova et al. 1992*).
+
 
+
The coca plantations that are the source of
+
 
+
cocaine are known as cocales. Bolivian huanaco
+
 
+
leaves (Erythroxylum coca var. coca) are preferred for
+
 
+
cocaine production because they are the highest
+
 
+
yielding. With good chemicals and chemists, it is
+
 
+
possible to produce 1 kg of pure cocaine from 100
+
 
+
kg of coca leaves. In the early 1980s, some 100 tons
+
 
+
ofpure cocaine were exported from Colombia alone.
+
 
+
The entire process of cocaine production, as
+
 
+
well as the smuggling routes, the cartels, and everything
+
 
+
from the connections between politicians
+
 
+
and the cartels to the consumption of cocaine
+
 
+
even by politicians in the White House, has been
+
 
+
documented in countless reports on the radio and
+
 
+
television and in magazines and well-researched
+
 
+
books (Morales 1989). It is difficult to escape the
+
 
+
impression that the cocaine saga is one of the bestknown
+
 
+
stories of our times but one that is officially
+
 
+
ignored. Our leaders still act as though the
+
 
+
Mafia is using the white powder to corrupt and
+
 
+
dominate the world. In reality, the chief benefactors
+
 
+
of the billion-dollar business are the banks
+
 
+
and the countless politicians and law-enforcement
+
 
+
personnel involved in the trade (Sauloy and Le
+
 
+
Bonniec 1994).
+
 
+
The snuffing of crystallized cocaine appears to
+
 
+
have been discovered in North America at the
+
 
+
beginning of the twentieth century and spread
+
 
+
from there. Shortly after 1900, pure cocaine was
+
 
+
being ingested together with betel and lime in
+
 
+
India, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and Java. The use of
+
 
+
cocaine as an athletic doping agent began in the
+
 
+
1940s (Fiihner 1943, 195*). Little has changed
+
 
+
since that time. Cocaine dealers still find some of
+
 
+
their best customers in the soccer stars of the
+
 
+
German first league and sports heroes in the
+
 
+
United States.
+
 
+
Basuko is dried cocaine base (an intermediate
+
 
+
step in the production of the pure alkaloid).
+
 
+
Sucito, or joints made of basuko, have been
+
 
+
smoked in Colombia since about 1930 (Siegel
+
 
+
1982b, 274). Cocaine is usually produced as a
+
 
+
hydrochloride but sometimes also as an oxalate or
+
 
+
hypochloride (HCL). Street cocaine is almost
+
 
+
exclusively cocaine HCL. Most of the illicit cocaine
+
 
+
available in Europe is only about 30% pure, as the
+
 
+
expensive pure drug is usually "cut:' The substances
+
 
+
that are most commonly used to "cut"
+
 
+
cocaine are:
+
 
+
• Inactive additives: milk sugar (lactose), grape
+
 
+
sugar (glucose), baking powder, talc (talcum),
+
 
+
borax, cornstarch, innositol, mannitol
+
 
+
• Active additives: speed (amphetamine, fenetyllin,
+
 
+
ritalin) and "freeze" (novocaine, benzocaine),
+
 
+
PCP ("angel dust"), methedrine,
+
 
+
pemoline, yohimbine, lidocaine, procaine,
+
 
+
tetracaine, caffeine, quinine, heroin (Taschner
+
 
+
and Richtberg 1982,65; Voigt 1982,84)
+
 
+
<strong>Dosage</strong>
+
 
+
A «line" of cocaine typically contains between 20
+
 
+
and 100 mg of cocaine, depending on the purity of
+
 
+
the substance and the consumer's preference.
+
 
+
Many users consume between 2 and 3 g in a day or
+
 
+
night. It is said that «the first line of the day is the
+
 
+
best."
+
 
+
<strong>Ritual Use</strong>
+
 
+
Cocaine has been called the champagne of drugs,
+
 
+
the drug of high society, the drug of the rich, et
+
 
+
cetera, and. it is certainly most often associated
+
 
+
with the wealthier classes. As a result, consumption
+
 
+
of the drug has taken on a strong social
+
 
+
character. Cocaine is rarely used by one person
+
 
+
alone. When it is taken with others, the consumption
+
 
+
follows a rather well-defined ritual. The person
+
 
+
providing the costly substance lays out several
+
 
+
lines (preferably on a mirror), then takes a
+
 
+
currency note (often of high value) and rolls it up.
+
 
+
One end of the rolled bill is placed in a nostril and
+
 
+
held with one hand, while the other hand is used
+
 
+
to press the other nostril closed. Half of one line,
+
 
+
or a small line, is then snuffed into the nostril. The
+
 
+
person then switches nostrils and snuffs the
+
 
+
remaining powder, after which the mirror is
+
 
+
passed to the next person. This circle may be
+
 
+
repeated several time, and it is customary for each
+
 
+
of several participants to prepare lines from their
+
 
+
own supply.
+
 
+
<strong>Artifacts</strong>
+
 
+
The cultural significance of cocaine in the modern
+
 
+
world cannot be overlooked. Artists, musicians,
+
 
+
and writers use it as a stimulant, while highly paid
+
 
+
computer experts, software engineers, and programmers
+
 
+
would hardly be able to keep up with
+
 
+
the demands of their jobs without their «coke."
+
 
+
Stockbrokers, financial gurus, and election staffers
+
 
+
may use cocaine until they are ready to collapse.
+
 
+
Even some of the soccer stars who jog into the
+
 
+
stadium sporting T-shirts with such incongruous
+
 
+
imprints as «Keine Macht den Drogen" C(No
+
 
+
Power to Drugs") are high as a kite on cocaine.
+
 
+
According to several estimates, the highest per
+
 
+
capita consumption of cocaine is found in Silicon
+
 
+
Valley and on Wall Street.
+
 
+
The first literary treatment of cocaine is found
+
 
+
in the Sherlock Holmes novel A Scandal in
+
 
+
Bohemia, by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, published
+
 
+
only two years after Koller's discovery (Phillips
+
 
+
and Wynne 1980, 45). In this book, the astonishing
+
 
+
abilities of this brilliant detective are attributed in
+
 
+
part to his use of cocaine. By the time of the following
+
 
+
novel, The Sign of the Four, Sherlock
+
 
+
Holmes is injecting the pure alkaloid intravenously
+
 
+
(Voigt 1982,38).
+
 
+
The most famous novel of the British writer
+
 
+
Robert Louis Stevenson, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde,
+
 
+
was written in only four or six days and nightswith
+
 
+
the assistance of the magic powder, of course
+
 
+
(Springer 1989,8; Voigt 1982,38).
+
 
+
The novellas of the expressionist poet Walter
+
 
+
Rheiner (1895-1925), in which he referred to the
+
 
+
drug as «the eternal poison" and «the loved and
+
 
+
hated poison," played a great role in shaping the
+
 
+
image of demonic seduction by pharmaceutical
+
 
+
cocaine (Rheiner 1979).
+
 
+
At the beginning of the twentieth century, the
+
 
+
physician Gottfried Benn (1886-1956) wrote and
+
 
+
published numerous poems about cocaine (of
+
 
+
which he was very fond) that at the time were
+
 
+
deemed rather shocking (Benn 1982; vom Scheidt
+
 
+
1981, 401). Many other authors have also been
+
 
+
inspired by cocaine, including Georg Trakl,
+
 
+
Thomas Zweifel, Josef Maria Frank Fritz von
+
 
+
Ostini, Klaus Mann, and Jean Cocteau (Springer
+
 
+
1989).
+
 
+
Cocaine is also the subject of many novels. The
+
 
+
classic cocaine novel, Cocaine, was written by
+
 
+
Pitigrilli (= Dino Serge, 1927). The drug has often
+
 
+
been treated within its current criminal context
+
 
+
(Badekerl 1983; Fauser 1983), while other novels
+
 
+
have been written from a futuristic perspective (Boye 1986). The "coke scene" has also provided a
+
 
+
rich source of literary inspiration (McInerney
+
 
+
1984; Ellis 1986).
+
 
+
The composer Richard Strauss (1864-1949)
+
 
+
wrote his opera Arabella while under the influence
+
 
+
of cocaine (Springer 1989,8; Timmerberg 1996).494
+
 
+
Countless compositions have had cocaine as their
+
 
+
subject, including Cocaine IiI, for a mezzosoprano
+
 
+
and four female jazz singers, by the
+
 
+
contemporary composer Nancy van de Vate (CD
+
 
+
Ensemble Belcanto, Koch, 1994). From the 1920s
+
 
+
to the 1940s, the white powder fueled the work of
+
 
+
especially jazz and blues musicians, and Chick
+
 
+
Webb, Luke Jordan, and Dick Justice even gave it a
+
 
+
musical treatment ("Cocaine Blues").
+
 
+
Veritable blizzards of cocaine have passed
+
 
+
through the brains of many of rock music's greats,
+
 
+
who then set their experiences with the "fuel" to
+
 
+
music. A few examples are Country Joe McDonald
+
 
+
("Cocaine"), Black Sabbath ("Snowblind"), Little
+
 
+
Feat C'Sailin' Shoes"), the Rolling Stones ("Let It
+
 
+
Bleed"), Jackson Browne ("Cocaine"), and David
+
 
+
Bowie ("Ziggy Stardust").
+
 
+
The "hippie" band known as the Grateful Dead
+
 
+
sang about the white powder in their song
+
 
+
"Truckin'," one of their few hits to make it onto the
+
 
+
charts. Eric Clapton's interpretation of J. J. Cale's
+
 
+
song "Cocaine" became a worldwide success and
+
 
+
has been played millions of times over. The reggae
+
 
+
artist Dillinger released an album named Cocaine.
+
 
+
The drug also left its mark on the German music
+
 
+
scene, influencing or even appearing in the music
+
 
+
of Hannes Wader, Konstantin Wecker, Abi Ofarim,
+
 
+
and T'MA a.k.a. Falco ("Mutter, der Mann mit
+
 
+
dem Koks ist da" ["Mother, the Man with the Coke
+
 
+
Is Here"]; BMG Records 1995).
+
 
+
Cocaine has been the subject of at least one
+
 
+
theater work: The American playwright Pendleton
+
 
+
King wrote a piece entitled Cocaine that was
+
 
+
produced for the stage in 1917 (Phillips and
+
 
+
Wynne 1980,93 ff.).
+
 
+
<strong>Medicinal Use</strong>
+
 
+
The medicinal applications of cocaine were
+
 
+
discovered only a short time after the isolation of
+
 
+
the molecule itself. Cocaine was initially used for
+
 
+
local anesthesia495 in ophthalmology and dentistry,
+
 
+
and infiltration anesthesia was developed just
+
 
+
a few years later (Custer 1898). Because analogs
+
 
+
(e.g., procaine) were developed that produce
+
 
+
specific effects with no psychoactive side effects,
+
 
+
cocaine is rarely used as an anesthetic today.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="53%"><strong>Pharmacology and Effects</strong>
+
 
+
Cocaine stimulates the central nervous system,
+
 
+
especially the autonomic (sympathetic) system,
+
 
+
where it inhibits the reuptake of the neurotransmitters
+
 
+
noradrenaline, dopamine, and
+
 
+
serotonin and increases the time in which they
+
 
+
remain in the synaptic cleft. Cocaine has a powerful effect upon the peripheral nervous
+
 
+
system, which explains its efficaciousness as a local
+
 
+
anesthetic. It has strong stimulant and vasoconstricting
+
 
+
properties. Very high dosages of cocaine
+
 
+
are said to be able to induce hallucinations, an
+
 
+
effect that is frequently noted in the neurological
+
 
+
literature (Pulvirenti and Koob 1996,49) as well as
+
 
+
in prose and poetry (Rheiner 1979, 27).
+
 
+
Hallucinations (of nonexistent people, images,
+
 
+
flickering lights) often occur during nights in
+
 
+
which dosages of 2 to 3 g have been taken. For
+
 
+
many people, cocaine also dispels fear. It stimu1ates
+
 
+
a need for alcoholic beverages at the same
+
 
+
time that it strongly suppresses the effects of
+
 
+
alcohol. A similar dynamic applies to nicotine.
+
 
+
In a certain sense, there is something unsatisfying
+
 
+
about the effects of cocaine. A person may
+
 
+
sense that satisfaction could be achieved if the
+
 
+
effects could possibly be increased. However, using
+
 
+
more cocaine does not produce an enhancement
+
 
+
of its effects.
+
 
+
Just as coca was and is employed in South
+
 
+
America as an aphrodisiac, cocaine has a similar
+
 
+
use in the West. Cocaine's reputation as an aphrodisiac
+
 
+
can be traced back to Sigmund Freud (1884)
+
 
+
and has been repeatedly confirmed in the
+
 
+
pharmacological literature:
+
 
+
At a high level of intoxication, central
+
 
+
excitation sets in with characteristic shivering,
+
 
+
an initial state of euphoria that turns into
+
 
+
delirium and hallucinations. For women, the
+
 
+
stimulation ... not infrequently has an erotic
+
 
+
character and has resulted in later accusations
+
 
+
of sexual misconduct against the operating
+
 
+
physician. (Fiihner 1943, 196*)
+
 
+
Some psychiatrists believe that cocaine stimulates
+
 
+
the "sexual center" of the brain (Siegel
+
 
+
1982a). For many users, cocaine is inevitably
+
 
+
associated with sexuality (MacDonald et al. 1988;
+
 
+
Phillips and Wynne 1980,221).
+
 
+
Cocaine relaxes and opens the sphincter
+
 
+
muscles, which makes anal penetration easier as
+
 
+
well as substantially more pleasurable. However,
+
 
+
cocaine (much like ephedrine) often has an
+
 
+
adverse effect on erectile function and consequently
+
 
+
leads to temporary impotence (cf. Siegel
+
 
+
1982a).
+
 
+
The addictive potential of cocaine has been the
+
 
+
subject of much debate. This issue does not appear
+
 
+
to be oriented toward the user as much as it
+
 
+
reflects the current legal situation. In recent years,
+
 
+
there have been efforts to develop a vaccination
+
 
+
against "cocaine addiction." Of course, the
+
 
+
research in this area is conducted on rats (Hellwig
+
 
+
1996). The effect of cocaine on the brain is also an
+
 
+
object of much research, since studies that
+
 
+
confirm the adverse effects of cocaine are likely to
+
 
+
receive financial support from the government. Studies that do not have a political agenda are the
+
 
+
exception rather than the rule (Volkow and Swann
+
 
+
1990).
+
 
+
People who use cocaine frequently suffer from
+
 
+
a runny nose ("coke sniffles") the following day.
+
 
+
Users may counteract this undesirable and
+
 
+
unpleasant aftereffect by rinsing their nose with a
+
 
+
saline solution (e.g., with medicinal salts). Many
+
 
+
users rub vitamin E oil in their nose, a practice
+
 
+
said to regenerate the highly irritated mucous
+
 
+
membranes in the nose (Voigt 1982,72). Although
+
 
+
cocaine can be very helpful in dealing with an
+
 
+
acute attack of hay fever, chronic use can actually
+
 
+
contribute to the condition.
+
 
+
<strong>Crack or Free-Base Cocaine</strong>
+
 
+
In the German press, crack has been portrayed as
+
 
+
"death for a few dollars," "the devil's drug from the
+
 
+
U.S.A.;' et cetera. The general idea seems to be that
+
 
+
"cocaine was a miracle, but crack, crack was better
+
 
+
than sex" or "cocaine was purgatory-but crack is
+
 
+
hell" (in Wiener 6 [1986]: 65,66).
+
 
+
Crack, which is also known as base, free base,
+
 
+
baseball, rocks, Roxanne, and supercoke, is
+
 
+
nothing more than smokeable free-base cocaine
+
 
+
(Siegel 1982b). In other words, crack is cocaine in
+
 
+
the form of a free base (Pulvirenti and Koob 1996,
+
 
+
48). It can be obtained from an aqueous solution
+
 
+
of cocaine hydrochloride to which an alkaline
+
 
+
substance (such as sodium carbonate) is added.
+
 
+
The cocaine salt is transformed into the pure base,
+
 
+
or, in other words, the pure substance. It can then
+
 
+
be purified with ether, causing the cocaine to
+
 
+
crystallize out. Crack is usually "smoked" (i.e.,
+
 
+
vaporized and inhaled) in glass pipes. A typical
+
 
+
dosage ranges from 0.05 to 0.1 g. The effect is very
+
 
+
similar to that of snuffed cocaine but is much
+
 
+
more intense:
+
 
+
Although crack is a derivative of cocaine, there
+
 
+
is little comparison between the mild and
+
 
+
mostly stimulating cocaine inebriation and
+
 
+
the effects of the short-term crack high, which
+
 
+
can literally bowl one over. Whereas cocaine
+
 
+
produces a euphoric sensation of great concentration
+
 
+
and razor-sharp intelligence for
+
 
+
about 20 to 60 minutes, crack lasts for only
+
 
+
three to five minutes while giving the consumer
+
 
+
an incredibly strong kick with regard to
+
 
+
physical sensations as well as the euphoria of
+
 
+
absolute omnipotence. Of course, this has
+
 
+
resulted in many myths, including one that
+
 
+
crack is particularly pure. (Sahihi 1995,37*)
+
 
+
Ethnologists have begun using the field
+
 
+
methods typical of the discipline to study the
+
 
+
"crack phenomenon;' which appears to be a
+
 
+
typically American product (Holden 1989).
+
 
+
"Crack life" is a reflection of the problems in
+
 
+
American society and reveals deep social fissures and cultural anomalies. For users, the "crack way"
+
 
+
is an important form of identity formation. Crack
+
 
+
is frequently found together with prostitution, as
+
 
+
"addicts" may accept it as a form of payment for
+
 
+
sexual services (Carlson and Siegal 1991).
+
 
+
On the street, the following substances may be
+
 
+
used as substitutes for cocaine or crack in times of
+
 
+
shortage: procaine, caffeine, benzocaine, phenylpropanolamine,
+
 
+
lidocaine, and ephedrine (Siegel
+
 
+
1980).
+
 
+
<strong>Commercial Forms and Regulations</strong>
+
 
+
Cocaine hydrochloride is available through the
+
 
+
pharmacy trade. The German Drug Law lists
+
 
+
cocaine as a "narcotic drug in which trafficking is
+
 
+
allowed but which may not be prescribed"
+
 
+
(Korner 1994, 42). In the United States, the Controlled
+
 
+
Substances Act classifies cocaine as a
+
 
+
Schedule II substance.
+
 
+
<strong>Literature</strong>
+
 
+
See also the entries for Erythroxylum coca,
+
 
+
Erythroxylum novogranatense, atropine, and
+
 
+
tropane alkaloids.
+
 
+
Ashley, Richard. 1975. Cocaine: Its history, use and
+
 
+
effects. New York: St. Martin's Press.
+
 
+
Aurep, B. von. 1880. Dber die physiologische
+
 
+
Wirkung des CocaYn. Archiv fur Physiologie
+
 
+
21:38-77.
+
 
+
Badekerl, Klaus. 1983. Ein Kilo Schnee von Gestern.
+
 
+
Munich and Zurich: Piper.
+
 
+
Benn, Gottfried. 1982. Gedichte, in der Fassung der
+
 
+
Erstdrucke. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer.
+
 
+
Boye, Karin. 1986. Kallocain: Roman aus dem 21.
+
 
+
Jahrhundert. Kiel: Neuer Malik Verlag.
+
 
+
Biisch, H. P., and W. Rummel. 1990.
+
 
+
Lokalanasthetika, Lokalanasthesie. In Allgemeine
+
 
+
und spezielle Pharmakologie und Toxikologie (5th
+
 
+
ed.), ed. W. Forth, D. Heuschler, and W. Rummel,
+
 
+
490-96. Mannheim, Vienna, and Zurich: B. 1.
+
 
+
Wissenschaftsverlag.
+
 
+
Carlson, Robert G., and Harvey A. Siegal. 1991. The
+
 
+
crack life: An ethnographic overview of crack use
+
 
+
and sexual behavior among African-Americans
+
 
+
in a Midwest metropolitan city. Journal of
+
 
+
Psychoactive Drugs 23 (1): 11-20.
+
 
+
Crowley, Aleister. 1973. Cocaine. San Francisco:
+
 
+
And/Or Press.
+
 
+
Custer, Julius, Jr. 1898. Cocain und
+
 
+
Infiltrationanasthesie. Basel: Benno Schwabe.
+
 
+
Ellis, Bret Easton. 1987. Less Than Zero. New York:
+
 
+
Random House.
+
 
+
Fauser, Jorg. 1983. Der Schneemann. Reinbek:
+
 
+
Rowohlt.
+
 
+
Fischer 5., A. Raskin, and E. Uhlenhuth, eds. 1987.
+
 
+
Cocaine: Clinical and biobehavioral aspects. New
+
 
+
York: Oxford University Press.
+
 
+
Freud, Sigmund. 1884. Uher Coca. Centralblatt fur
+
 
+
die gesamte Therapie 2:289-314. Repr. in
+
 
+
Taschner and Richtberg 1982,206-31 (see
+
 
+
below).
+
 
+
---. 1885. Dber die Allgemeinwirkung des
+
 
+
Cocains. Medizinisch-chirurgisches Centralblatt
+
 
+
20:374-75.
+
 
+
---.1887. Bemerkungen tiber Cocainsucht und
+
 
+
Cocainfurcht, mit Beziehung auf einen Vortrag
+
 
+
von W. A. Hammonds. Wiener medizinische
+
 
+
Wochenschrift 37:927-32.
+
 
+
---.1996. Schriften uber Kokain. Frankfurt/M.:
+
 
+
Fischer. (Orig. pub. 1884.)
+
 
+
Gay, George R. 1981. You've corne a long way, baby!
+
 
+
Coke time for the new American lady of the
+
 
+
eighties. Journal ofPsychoactive Drugs 13 (4):
+
 
+
297-318.
+
 
+
Gottlieb, Adam. 1979. The pleasures ofcocaine. San
+
 
+
Francisco: And/Or Press.
+
 
+
Grinspoon, Lester, and James B. Bakalar. 1985.
+
 
+
Cocaine: A drug and its social evolution. Rev. ed.
+
 
+
New York: Basic Books.
+
 
+
Hartmann, Walter. 1990. Informationsreihe Drogen:
+
 
+
Kokain. Markt Erlbach: Raymond Martin Verlag.
+
 
+
Hellwig, Bettina. 1996. Impfung gegen Cocain?
+
 
+
Deutsche Apotheker-Zeitung 136 (4): 46/270.
+
 
+
Holden, Constance. 1989. Streetwise crack research.
+
 
+
Science 246:1376-81.
+
 
+
Holmstedt, Bo, Eva Jaatmaa, Kurt Leander, and
+
 
+
Timothy Plowman. 1977. Determination
+
 
+
of cocaine in some South American species of
+
 
+
Erythroxylum using mass fragmentography.
+
 
+
Phytochemistry 16:1753-55.
+
 
+
Kennedy, J. 1985. Coca exotics: The illustrated story of
+
 
+
cocaine. New York: Cornwall Books.
+
 
+
Koller, Carl [= Karl]. 1884. Dber die Verwendung des
+
 
+
CocaYn zur Anasthetisierung am Auge. Wiener
+
 
+
medizinische Wochenschrift 34: 1276-1278,
+
 
+
1309-1l.
+
 
+
---. 1935. Nachtragliche Bemerkungen tiber die
+
 
+
ersten Anfange der Lokalanasthesie. Wiener
+
 
+
medizinische Wochenschrift 85:7.
+
 
+
---. 1941. History of cocaine as a local
+
 
+
anesthetic. Journal ofthe American Medical
+
 
+
Association 117: 1284.
+
 
+
Lindgren, J.-E. 1981. Guide to the analysis of cocaine
+
 
+
and its metabolites in biological material. Journal
+
 
+
ofEthnopharmacology 3:337-5l.
+
 
+
Lossen, W. 1865. Dber das Cocain. Liebig's Annalen
+
 
+
133:351-71.
+
 
+
MacDonald, P. T., V. Waldorf, C. Reinarman, and
+
 
+
S. Murphy. 1988. Heavy cocaine use and sexual
+
 
+
behavior. Journal ofDrug Issues 18 (3): 437-55.
+
 
+
Maier, Hans Wolfgang. 1926. Der Kokainismus.
+
 
+
Leipzig: Thieme.
+
 
+
Mcinerney, Jay. 1984. Bright Lights, Big City. New
+
 
+
York: Knopf.
+
 
+
Morales, Edmundo. 1989. Cocaine: White gold rush in
+
 
+
Peru. Tucson and London: The University of
+
 
+
Arizona Press.
+
 
+
Niemann, Albert. 1860. Dber eine neue organische
+
 
+
Base in den Cocablattern. Dissertation,
+
 
+
Gottingen University.
+
 
+
Pernice, Ludwig. 1890. Dber Cocainanaesthesie.
+
 
+
Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift 16:287.
+
 
+
Phillips, Joel 1., and Ronald D. Wynne. 1980.
+
 
+
Cocaine: The mystique and the reality. New York:
+
 
+
Avon Books.
+
 
+
Plasket, B., and E. Quillen. 1985. The white stuff. New
+
 
+
York: Dell Publishing Co.
+
 
+
Pulvirenti, Luigi, and George F. Koob. 1996. Die
+
 
+
Neurobiologie der Kokainabhangigkeit. Spektrum
+
 
+
der Wissenschaft 2:48-55. (An unethical and
+
 
+
nauseating study on animals.)
+
 
+
Rheiner, Walter. 1979. Kokain: Eine Novelle und
+
 
+
andere Prosa. Berlin and Darmstadt: Agora
+
 
+
Verlag. Repr. 2nd ed., 1982.
+
 
+
Richards, Eugene. 1994. Cocaine true, cocaine blue.
+
 
+
New York: Aperture.
+
 
+
Roles, R., M. Goldberg, and R. G. Sharrar. 1990. Risk
+
 
+
factors for syphilis: Cocaine use and prostitution.
+
 
+
American Journal ofPublic Health 80 (7): 853-57.
+
 
+
Sabbag, Robert. 1976. Snowblind: A briefcareer in the
+
 
+
cocaine trade. Indianapolis and New York: The
+
 
+
Bobbs-Merrill Co.
+
 
+
Sauloy, Mylene, and Yves Le Bonniec. 1994.
+
 
+
Tropenschnee-Kokain: Die Kartelle, ihre Banken,
+
 
+
ihre Gewinne. Ein Wirtschaftsreport. Reinbek bei
+
 
+
Hamburg: Rowohlt.
+
 
+
Siegel, Ronald K. 1978. Cocaine hallucinations.
+
 
+
American Journal ofPsychiatry 135:309-14.
+
 
+
---.1980. Cocaine substitutes. New England
+
 
+
Journal ofMedicine 302:817-18.
+
 
+
---. 1982a. Cocaine and sexual dysfunction: The
+
 
+
curse of Mama Coca. Journal ofPsychoactive
+
 
+
Drugs 14 (1-2): 71-74.
+
 
+
---. 1982b. Cocaine smoking. Journal of
+
 
+
Psychoactive Drugs 14 (4): 271-359.
+
 
+
Smith, David E., and Donald R. Wesson. 1978.
+
 
+
Cocaine. Journal ofPsychedelic Drugs 10 (4):
+
 
+
351-60.
+
 
+
Springer, Alfred, ed. 1989. Kokain: Mythos und
+
 
+
Realitiit-Eine kritisch dokumentierte Anthologie.
+
 
+
Vienna and Munich: Verlag Christian
+
 
+
Brandstatter.
+
 
+
Taschner, Karl-Ludwig, and Werner Richtberg. 1982.
+
 
+
Kokain-Report. Wiesbaden: Akademische
+
 
+
Verlagsgesellschaft.
+
 
+
Thamm, Berndt Georg. 1985. Das Kartell: Von
+
 
+
Drogen und Miirkten-ein modernes Miirchen.
+
 
+
Basel: Sphinx.
+
 
+
---. 1986. Andenschnee: Die lange Linie des
+
 
+
Kokain. Basel: Sphinx.
+
 
+
Timmerberg, Helge. 1996. Kaltmacher Kokain.
+
 
+
Tempo 3:34-42.
+
 
+
Turner, Canton E., Beverly S. Urbanek, G. Michael
+
 
+
Wall, and Coy W. Waller. 1988. Cocaine: An
+
 
+
annotated bibliography. 2 vols. Jackson and
+
 
+
London: Research Institute of Pharmaceutical
+
 
+
Sciences/University Press of Mississippi.
+
 
+
Voigt, Hermann P. 1982. Zum Thema: Kokain. Basel:
+
 
+
Sphinx.
+
 
+
Volkow, Nora v., and Alan C. Swann, eds. 1990.
+
 
+
Cocaine in the brain. New Brunswick, N.J.:
+
 
+
Rutgers University Press. (See book review by
+
 
+
Ronald Siegel in Journal ofPsychoactive Drugs 23
+
 
+
(1; 1991): 93 f.)
+
 
+
vom Scheidt, Jurgen. 1973. Freud und das Kokain.
+
 
+
Psyche (Munich) 27:385-430.
+
 
+
---.1981. Kokain. In Rausch und Realitat, ed. G.
+
 
+
Volger, 1:398-402. Cologne: Rautenstrauch-Joest
+
 
+
Museum fur Volkerkunde.
+
 
+
Wesson, Donald R. 1982. Cocaine use by masseuses.
+
 
+
Journal ofPsychoactive Drugs 14 (1-2): 75-76.
+
 
+
Wolfer, P. 1922. Das Cocain, seine Bedeutung und
+
 
+
seine Geschichte. Schweizerische medizinische
+
 
+
Wochenschrift 3:674-79.</td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
</table>
+

Revision as of 14:44, 3 March 2014

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