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[[File:Cocaine.jpg|left|thumb|400px]]
  
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+
Cocaine is a powerful CNS stimulant, and most consumed psychoactive plant constituent in the world. Cocaine is known among its users for the 'rush' it provides when first insufflated. It's a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is gathered from the leaves of the coca plant. (Erythroxylon coca). Pure cocaine (as a base) is not water soluble but can be dissolved in alcohol, chloroform, turpentine oil, olive oil, or acetone. Cocaine salts are water soluble.
  
<tr>
+
The name comes from "coca" (Quechua "cuca") and "ine" because of its use as a local anesthetic. Later the suffix "-caine" was later used to form names of synthetic local anesthetics.
<td valign="top" width="50%"><strong>Other Names</strong>
+
  
Benzoylecgoninmethylester, cocain, cocaIn, cocaina,
+
== History ==
  
d-cocain, erythroxylin, kokain, methylbenzoylecgonine,
+
For over a thousand years people have chewed the leaves of Eryhtoxylon coca, a plant that has many alkaloids, including cocaine.
  
methylbenzylekgonin, (±)-methyl- [3J3benzoyloxy-
+
The isolation of the Cocaine alkaloid was not achieved until 1855 by the German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke, who named the alkaloid "Erythroxyline"
  
2a( 1aH,5aH)-tropancarboxylate], 0benzoyl-
+
In 1856 Albert Niemann developed an improved purification process.
  
[(- )-ekgonin] -methylester, 3-benzoyloxy8-
+
In 1879. Vassili von Anrep devised an experiment to demonstrate the analgesic properties of this alkaloid. He prepared two separate jars, one containing a cocaine-salt solution, while the other contained only salt water. He then submerged a frog's legs into the two jars, one leg in the treatment and one in the control, and proceeded to stimulate the legs in several different ways. The leg that had been immersed in the cocaine solution reacted very differently from the leg that had been immersed in salt water.
  
methyl-8-azabicyclo [3.2.1] octan-2-carboxylicacidmethylester,
+
Later, other substances derived from cocaine, including eucaine, procaine (= Novocaine), tetracaine (= Pantocaine) (1930), lidocaine (= Xylocaine) (1944), mepivacaine (= Scandicaine) (1957), prilocain (= Xylonest) (1960), bupivacaine (1963), and etidocain (= Duranest) (1972), were also used as local anesthetics (Busch and Rummel 1990; Schneider 1993, 19*). Holocaine was also regarded as a substitute.
  
3J3 -benzoyloxy-2J3 -tropancarboxylicacid-
+
== Usage ==
 +
=== Ritual Use ===
  
methylester
+
Cocaine has been called the champagne of drugs, the drug of high society, the drug of the rich, et cetera - it is certainly most often associated with the wealthier classes. As a result, consumption of the drug has taken on a strong social character. Cocaine is rarely used by one person alone, and when it is taken with others, the consumption follows a rather well-defined ritual. The person providing the costly substance lays out several lines (preferably on a mirror), then takes a currency note (often of high value) and rolls it up. One end of the rolled bill is placed in a nostril and held with one hand, while the other hand is used to press the other nostril closed. Half of one line, or a small line, is then snuffed into the nostril. The person then switches nostrils and snuffs the remaining powder, after which the mirror is passed to the next person. This circle may be repeated several time, and it is customary for each of several participants to prepare lines from their own supply.
  
<strong>Street Names</strong>
+
=== Crack or Free-Base Cocaine ===
  
Autobahn, blow, C, candy, charlie, coca, coca pura
+
In the German press, crack has been portrayed as "death for a few dollars," "the devil's drug from the U.S.A.;' et cetera. The general idea seems to be that "cocaine was a miracle, but crack, crack was better than sex" or "cocaine was purgatory-but crack is hell" (in Wiener 6 [1986]: 65,66). Crack, which is also known as base, free base, baseball, rocks, Roxanne, and supercoke, is nothing more than smokeable free-base cocaine (Siegel 1982b). In other words, crack is cocaine in the form of a free base (Pulvirenti and Koob 1996, 48). It can be obtained from an aqueous solution of cocaine hydrochloride to which an alkaline substance (such as sodium carbonate) is added. The cocaine salt is transformed into the pure base, or, in other words, the pure substance. It can then be purified with ether, causing the cocaine to crystallize out. Crack is usually "smoked" (i.e., vaporized and inhaled) in glass pipes. A typical dosage ranges from 0.05 to 0.1 g. The effect is very similar to that of snuffed cocaine but is much more intense: Although crack is a derivative of cocaine, there is little comparison between the mild and mostly stimulating cocaine inebriation and the effects of the short-term crack high, which can literally bowl one over. Whereas cocaine produces a euphoric sensation of great concentration and razor-sharp intelligence for about 20 to 60 minutes, crack lasts for only three to five minutes while giving the consumer an incredibly strong kick with regard to physical sensations as well as the euphoria of absolute omnipotence. Of course, this has resulted in many myths, including one that crack is particularly pure. (Sahihi 1995,37*) Ethnologists have begun using the field methods typical of the discipline to study the "crack phenomenon;' which appears to be a typically American product (Holden 1989). "Crack life" is a reflection of the problems in American society and reveals deep social fissures and cultural anomalies. For users, the "crack way" is an important form of identity formation. Crack is frequently found together with prostitution, as "addicts" may accept it as a form of payment for sexual services (Carlson and Siegal 1991).
  
(Spanish, "pure coca»), coco, coke, cousin, donuts,
+
On the street, the following substances may be used as substitutes for cocaine or crack in times of shortage: procaine, caffeine, benzocaine, phenylpropanolamine, lidocaine, and ephedrine (Siegel 1980).
  
doppelter espresso, flake, koks, la blanca, lady
+
=== Medicinal Use ===
  
snow, la rubiecita, line, linie, mama coca, nasenpuder,
+
The medicinal applications of cocaine were discovered only a short time after the isolation of the molecule itself. Cocaine was initially used for local anesthesia in ophthalmology and dentistry, and infiltration anesthesia was developed just a few years later (Custer 1898). Because analogs (e.g., procaine) were developed that produce specific effects with no psychoactive side effects, cocaine is rarely used as an anesthetic today.
  
nose candy, peach, perica, puro (Spanish,
+
== Dosage ==
  
"pure»), schnee, schneewittchen, schniefe, schnupfschnee,
+
A "line" of cocaine typically contains between 20 and 100 mg of cocaine, depending on the purity of the substance and the consumer's preference. Cocaine promotes compulsive redosing, with many users consuming up to 2-3g within a night - however it should be noted the comedown will be worse the more cocaine is ingested in an evening.
  
sniff, snow, snowwhite, strasse, strasschen,
+
Depending on purity, cocaine dosage '''will''' vary
  
Ziggy's stardust
+
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|+ Insufflated
 +
|-
 +
| Light|| 20-50mg
 +
|-
 +
| Common || 50-100mg
 +
|-
 +
| Strong || 100-150mg
 +
|-
 +
| Heavy || 150mg+
 +
|}
  
Empirical formula: C17H21N04
+
== Duration ==
  
Substance type: coca alkaloid
+
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|+ Insufflated
 +
|-
 +
| Onset || 1-3 minutes
 +
|-
 +
| Total || 1-1.5 hours
 +
|}
  
The cocaine molecule is structurally related to
+
== Effects ==
  
tropine and other tropane alkaloids (Roth and
+
Very high dosages of cocaine are said to be able to induce hallucinations, an effect that is frequently noted in the neurological literature (Pulvirenti and Koob 1996,49) as well as in prose and poetry (Rheiner 1979, 27). Hallucinations (of nonexistent people, images, flickering lights) often occur during nights in which dosages of 2 to 3 g have been taken. For many people, cocaine also dispels fear. It stimulates a need for alcoholic beverages at the same time that it strongly suppresses the effects of alcohol. A similar dynamic applies to nicotine. In a certain sense, there is something unsatisfying about the effects of cocaine. A person may sense that satisfaction could be achieved if the effects could possibly be increased. However, using more cocaine does not produce an enhancement of its effects. Just as coca was and is employed in SouthAmerica as an aphrodisiac, cocaine has a similar use in the West. Cocaine's reputation as an aphrodisiac can be traced back to Sigmund Freud (1884) and has been repeatedly confirmed in the pharmacological literature. At a high level of intoxication, central excitation sets in with characteristic shivering, an initial state of euphoria that turns into delirium and hallucinations. For women, the stimulation ... not infrequently has an erotic character and has resulted in later accusations of sexual misconduct against the operating physician. (Fiihner 1943, 196*) Some psychiatrists believe that cocaine stimulates the "sexual center" of the brain (Siegel 1982a). For many users, cocaine is inevitably associated with sexuality (MacDonald et al. 1988; Phillips and Wynne 1980,221). Cocaine relaxes and opens the sphincter muscles, which makes anal penetration easier as well as substantially more pleasurable. However, cocaine (much like ephedrine) often has an adverse effect on erectile function and consequently leads to temporary impotence (cf. Siegel 1982a).
  
Fenner 1988, 311*). Today, cocaine is the most
+
=== Positive ===
  
consumed psychoactive plant constituent in the
+
* Elevated Mood
  
world. Pure cocaine (as a base) is not water soluble
+
* Euphoria
  
but can be dissolved in alcohol, chloroform,
+
* Stimulation
  
turpentine oil, olive oil, or acetone. Cocaine salts
+
=== Neutral ===
  
are water soluble.
+
* Hyper-inflated ego
  
<strong>
+
* Numbing effects
  
History</strong>
+
* Sweating
  
In 1860, the German chemist Albert Niemann first
+
* Dilated pupils
  
isolated cocaine from the leaves of the Peruvian
+
* Decreased Appetite
  
coca bush (Erythroxylum coca). The German
+
* Decreased Sleep
  
pharmacist Friedrich Gaedeke (1855) may have
+
=== Negative ===
  
represented the alkaloid before this. By around
+
*Increase in irritability
  
1870, cocaine was being used as an agent of
+
*Tachycardia (Raised Heartrate)
  
pleasure, and it was employed at this time to treat
+
*Can cause arrhythmias (Irregular heart rhythms)
  
alcohol and morphine withdrawal as well as
+
*Hypertension (High blood pressure)
  
melancholy. The ophthalmologist Karl Koller, a
+
*Hyperthermia (Increase in body temperature)
  
friend of Sigmund Freud, introduced cocaine as a
+
*Urge to redose
  
local anesthetic for eye surgery in 1884. Hermann
+
*Dehydration
  
Goring's use of cocaine was famous, and Adolf
+
*Restlessness
  
Hitler, who also used other stimulants (cf. strychnine),
+
*May cause muscle tremors
  
is thought to have consumed cocaine as well
+
== Harm Reduction ==
  
(Phillips and Wynne 1980, 112).
+
Avoid: 2C-T-X, aMT, Tramadol, Meperidine, MAOI's. See [[Drug combinations]] for more.
  
Later, other substances derived from cocaine,
+
=== Addiction ===
  
including eucaine, procaine (= Novocaine), tetracaine
+
The addictive potential of cocaine has been the subject of much debate. This issue does not appear to be oriented toward the user as much as it reflects the current legal situation. In recent years, there have been efforts to develop a vaccination against "cocaine addiction." Of course, the research in this area is conducted on rats (Hellwig 1996). The effect of cocaine on the brain is also an object of much research, since studies that confirm the adverse effects of cocaine are likely to receive financial support from the government. Studies that do not have a political agenda are the exception rather than the rule (Volkow and Swann 1990).
  
(= Pantocaine) (1930), lidocaine (= Xylocaine)
+
People who use cocaine frequently suffer from a runny nose ("coke sniffles") the following day. Users may counteract this undesirable and unpleasant aftereffect by rinsing their nose with a saline solution (e.g., with medicinal salts). Many users rub vitamin E oil in their nose, a practice said to regenerate the highly irritated mucous membranes in the nose (Voigt 1982,72). Although cocaine can be very helpful in dealing with an acute attack of hay fever, chronic use can actually contribute to the condition.
  
(1944), mepivacaine (= Scandicaine) (1957),
+
== Chemistry and Pharmacology ==
  
prilocain (= Xylonest) (1960), bupivacaine (1963),
+
Cocaine stimulates the central nervous system, especially the autonomic (sympathetic) system, where it inhibits the reuptake of the neurotransmitters noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and increases the time in which they remain in the synaptic cleft. Cocaine is a triple reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI). It also acts as local anesthetic. It has strong stimulant and vasoconstricting properties.
  
and etidocain (= Duranest) (1972), were also used
+
[[File:Cocaine molecule.gif|right]]
  
as local anesthetics (Busch and Rummel 1990;
+
=== Production ===
  
Schneider 1993, 19*). Holocaine was also regarded
+
The Colombian and Peruvian colloquial term for coca plantations used in cocaine production are known as "cocales". Bolivian huanaco leaves (Erythroxylum coca var. coca) are preferred for cocaine production because they are the highest yielding. Under optimal conditions, it is possible to produce 1 kg of pure cocaine from 100 kg of coca leaves. In the early 1980s, some 100 tons of pure cocaine were exported from Colombia alone. Although cultivation of coca for traditional use is legal in Colombia, this only makes a fraction of the total coca produced for the illegal drug market. The methods of extracting cocaine from the coca plant are relatively unchanged, utilizing an acid/base extraction method, which is a common method of extracting alkaloids from plant matter. Due to the high demand for cocaine, production in some areas is out of financial necessity, due to lack of other employment opportunities, or low profit margins of legal crops.
  
as a substitute.
+
Eradication of coca production has been mostly ineffective, hampered by the appearance of new strains of coca that show traits such as higher potency (increasing the profit margins of cocaine producers) and resistance to defoliants. Efforts in Colombia to reduce illicit coca cultivation have resulted only in decentralization of production.
  
The goal of chemists and pharmacologists to
+
== Legal status ==
  
carve out the effective core of the cocaine
+
Possession of cocaine without a medical prescription is illegal pretty much worldwide.
  
molecule and retain the desirable and remove
+
[[Category:Drugs]]
  
the undesirable effects was achieved in an
+
[[Category:Stimulant]]
 
+
exemplary manner with the synthesis of procaine
+
 
+
(1905). (Busch and Rummel 1990, 490)
+
 
+
In 1923, Willstadter and his coworkers worked
+
 
+
out the complete synthesis of cocaine. The precursors
+
 
+
are succindialdehyde, methylamine, and
+
 
+
mono-methyl-J3-keto-glutarate. However, this synthesis
+
 
+
has never achieved pharmaceutical importance.
+
 
+
Practically speaking, all of the cocaine used
+
 
+
in the pharmaceutical industry is derived from the
+
 
+
coca plant. In 1976,410 kg of cocaine were legally
+
 
+
extracted for this purpose (Taschner and Richtberg
+
 
+
1982,64).
+
 
+
<strong>Production and Use</strong>
+
 
+
An analysis of thirteen South American Erythroxylum
+
 
+
species found that cocaine is present only
+
 
+
in Erythroxylum coca and Erythroxylum novogranatense
+
 
+
(Holmstedt et al. 1977). Hair analysis of
+
 
+
Egyptian mummies has revealed the presence of
+
 
+
ecgonin, the first metabolite of cocaine, which indicates
+
 
+
that the ancient Egyptians either consumed
+
 
+
cocaine or an unknown African plant that metabolizes
+
 
+
to ecgonin (Balabanova et al. 1992*).
+
 
+
The coca plantations that are the source of
+
 
+
cocaine are known as cocales. Bolivian huanaco
+
 
+
leaves (Erythroxylum coca var. coca) are preferred for
+
 
+
cocaine production because they are the highest
+
 
+
yielding. With good chemicals and chemists, it is
+
 
+
possible to produce 1 kg of pure cocaine from 100
+
 
+
kg of coca leaves. In the early 1980s, some 100 tons
+
 
+
ofpure cocaine were exported from Colombia alone.
+
 
+
The entire process of cocaine production, as
+
 
+
well as the smuggling routes, the cartels, and everything
+
 
+
from the connections between politicians
+
 
+
and the cartels to the consumption of cocaine
+
 
+
even by politicians in the White House, has been
+
 
+
documented in countless reports on the radio and
+
 
+
television and in magazines and well-researched
+
 
+
books (Morales 1989). It is difficult to escape the
+
 
+
impression that the cocaine saga is one of the bestknown
+
 
+
stories of our times but one that is officially
+
 
+
ignored. Our leaders still act as though the
+
 
+
Mafia is using the white powder to corrupt and
+
 
+
dominate the world. In reality, the chief benefactors
+
 
+
of the billion-dollar business are the banks
+
 
+
and the countless politicians and law-enforcement
+
 
+
personnel involved in the trade (Sauloy and Le
+
 
+
Bonniec 1994).
+
 
+
The snuffing of crystallized cocaine appears to
+
 
+
have been discovered in North America at the
+
 
+
beginning of the twentieth century and spread
+
 
+
from there. Shortly after 1900, pure cocaine was
+
 
+
being ingested together with betel and lime in
+
 
+
India, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and Java. The use of
+
 
+
cocaine as an athletic doping agent began in the
+
 
+
1940s (Fiihner 1943, 195*). Little has changed
+
 
+
since that time. Cocaine dealers still find some of
+
 
+
their best customers in the soccer stars of the
+
 
+
German first league and sports heroes in the
+
 
+
United States.
+
 
+
Basuko is dried cocaine base (an intermediate
+
 
+
step in the production of the pure alkaloid).
+
 
+
Sucito, or joints made of basuko, have been
+
 
+
smoked in Colombia since about 1930 (Siegel
+
 
+
1982b, 274). Cocaine is usually produced as a
+
 
+
hydrochloride but sometimes also as an oxalate or
+
 
+
hypochloride (HCL). Street cocaine is almost
+
 
+
exclusively cocaine HCL. Most of the illicit cocaine
+
 
+
available in Europe is only about 30% pure, as the
+
 
+
expensive pure drug is usually "cut:' The substances
+
 
+
that are most commonly used to "cut"
+
 
+
cocaine are:
+
 
+
• Inactive additives: milk sugar (lactose), grape
+
 
+
sugar (glucose), baking powder, talc (talcum),
+
 
+
borax, cornstarch, innositol, mannitol
+
 
+
• Active additives: speed (amphetamine, fenetyllin,
+
 
+
ritalin) and "freeze" (novocaine, benzocaine),
+
 
+
PCP ("angel dust"), methedrine,
+
 
+
pemoline, yohimbine, lidocaine, procaine,
+
 
+
tetracaine, caffeine, quinine, heroin (Taschner
+
 
+
and Richtberg 1982,65; Voigt 1982,84)
+
 
+
<strong>Dosage</strong>
+
 
+
A «line" of cocaine typically contains between 20
+
 
+
and 100 mg of cocaine, depending on the purity of
+
 
+
the substance and the consumer's preference.
+
 
+
Many users consume between 2 and 3 g in a day or
+
 
+
night. It is said that «the first line of the day is the
+
 
+
best."
+
 
+
<strong>Ritual Use</strong>
+
 
+
Cocaine has been called the champagne of drugs,
+
 
+
the drug of high society, the drug of the rich, et
+
 
+
cetera, and. it is certainly most often associated
+
 
+
with the wealthier classes. As a result, consumption
+
 
+
of the drug has taken on a strong social
+
 
+
character. Cocaine is rarely used by one person
+
 
+
alone. When it is taken with others, the consumption
+
 
+
follows a rather well-defined ritual. The person
+
 
+
providing the costly substance lays out several
+
 
+
lines (preferably on a mirror), then takes a
+
 
+
currency note (often of high value) and rolls it up.
+
 
+
One end of the rolled bill is placed in a nostril and
+
 
+
held with one hand, while the other hand is used
+
 
+
to press the other nostril closed. Half of one line,
+
 
+
or a small line, is then snuffed into the nostril. The
+
 
+
person then switches nostrils and snuffs the
+
 
+
remaining powder, after which the mirror is
+
 
+
passed to the next person. This circle may be
+
 
+
repeated several time, and it is customary for each
+
 
+
of several participants to prepare lines from their
+
 
+
own supply.
+
 
+
<strong>Artifacts</strong>
+
 
+
The cultural significance of cocaine in the modern
+
 
+
world cannot be overlooked. Artists, musicians,
+
 
+
and writers use it as a stimulant, while highly paid
+
 
+
computer experts, software engineers, and programmers
+
 
+
would hardly be able to keep up with
+
 
+
the demands of their jobs without their «coke."
+
 
+
Stockbrokers, financial gurus, and election staffers
+
 
+
may use cocaine until they are ready to collapse.
+
 
+
Even some of the soccer stars who jog into the
+
 
+
stadium sporting T-shirts with such incongruous
+
 
+
imprints as «Keine Macht den Drogen" C(No
+
 
+
Power to Drugs") are high as a kite on cocaine.
+
 
+
According to several estimates, the highest per
+
 
+
capita consumption of cocaine is found in Silicon
+
 
+
Valley and on Wall Street.
+
 
+
The first literary treatment of cocaine is found
+
 
+
in the Sherlock Holmes novel A Scandal in
+
 
+
Bohemia, by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, published
+
 
+
only two years after Koller's discovery (Phillips
+
 
+
and Wynne 1980, 45). In this book, the astonishing
+
 
+
abilities of this brilliant detective are attributed in
+
 
+
part to his use of cocaine. By the time of the following
+
 
+
novel, The Sign of the Four, Sherlock
+
 
+
Holmes is injecting the pure alkaloid intravenously
+
 
+
(Voigt 1982,38).
+
 
+
The most famous novel of the British writer
+
 
+
Robert Louis Stevenson, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde,
+
 
+
was written in only four or six days and nightswith
+
 
+
the assistance of the magic powder, of course
+
 
+
(Springer 1989,8; Voigt 1982,38).
+
 
+
The novellas of the expressionist poet Walter
+
 
+
Rheiner (1895-1925), in which he referred to the
+
 
+
drug as «the eternal poison" and «the loved and
+
 
+
hated poison," played a great role in shaping the
+
 
+
image of demonic seduction by pharmaceutical
+
 
+
cocaine (Rheiner 1979).
+
 
+
At the beginning of the twentieth century, the
+
 
+
physician Gottfried Benn (1886-1956) wrote and
+
 
+
published numerous poems about cocaine (of
+
 
+
which he was very fond) that at the time were
+
 
+
deemed rather shocking (Benn 1982; vom Scheidt
+
 
+
1981, 401). Many other authors have also been
+
 
+
inspired by cocaine, including Georg Trakl,
+
 
+
Thomas Zweifel, Josef Maria Frank Fritz von
+
 
+
Ostini, Klaus Mann, and Jean Cocteau (Springer
+
 
+
1989).
+
 
+
Cocaine is also the subject of many novels. The
+
 
+
classic cocaine novel, Cocaine, was written by
+
 
+
Pitigrilli (= Dino Serge, 1927). The drug has often
+
 
+
been treated within its current criminal context
+
 
+
(Badekerl 1983; Fauser 1983), while other novels
+
 
+
have been written from a futuristic perspective (Boye 1986). The "coke scene" has also provided a
+
 
+
rich source of literary inspiration (McInerney
+
 
+
1984; Ellis 1986).
+
 
+
The composer Richard Strauss (1864-1949)
+
 
+
wrote his opera Arabella while under the influence
+
 
+
of cocaine (Springer 1989,8; Timmerberg 1996).494
+
 
+
Countless compositions have had cocaine as their
+
 
+
subject, including Cocaine IiI, for a mezzosoprano
+
 
+
and four female jazz singers, by the
+
 
+
contemporary composer Nancy van de Vate (CD
+
 
+
Ensemble Belcanto, Koch, 1994). From the 1920s
+
 
+
to the 1940s, the white powder fueled the work of
+
 
+
especially jazz and blues musicians, and Chick
+
 
+
Webb, Luke Jordan, and Dick Justice even gave it a
+
 
+
musical treatment ("Cocaine Blues").
+
 
+
Veritable blizzards of cocaine have passed
+
 
+
through the brains of many of rock music's greats,
+
 
+
who then set their experiences with the "fuel" to
+
 
+
music. A few examples are Country Joe McDonald
+
 
+
("Cocaine"), Black Sabbath ("Snowblind"), Little
+
 
+
Feat C'Sailin' Shoes"), the Rolling Stones ("Let It
+
 
+
Bleed"), Jackson Browne ("Cocaine"), and David
+
 
+
Bowie ("Ziggy Stardust").
+
 
+
The "hippie" band known as the Grateful Dead
+
 
+
sang about the white powder in their song
+
 
+
"Truckin'," one of their few hits to make it onto the
+
 
+
charts. Eric Clapton's interpretation of J. J. Cale's
+
 
+
song "Cocaine" became a worldwide success and
+
 
+
has been played millions of times over. The reggae
+
 
+
artist Dillinger released an album named Cocaine.
+
 
+
The drug also left its mark on the German music
+
 
+
scene, influencing or even appearing in the music
+
 
+
of Hannes Wader, Konstantin Wecker, Abi Ofarim,
+
 
+
and T'MA a.k.a. Falco ("Mutter, der Mann mit
+
 
+
dem Koks ist da" ["Mother, the Man with the Coke
+
 
+
Is Here"]; BMG Records 1995).
+
 
+
Cocaine has been the subject of at least one
+
 
+
theater work: The American playwright Pendleton
+
 
+
King wrote a piece entitled Cocaine that was
+
 
+
produced for the stage in 1917 (Phillips and
+
 
+
Wynne 1980,93 ff.).
+
 
+
<strong>Medicinal Use</strong>
+
 
+
The medicinal applications of cocaine were
+
 
+
discovered only a short time after the isolation of
+
 
+
the molecule itself. Cocaine was initially used for
+
 
+
local anesthesia495 in ophthalmology and dentistry,
+
 
+
and infiltration anesthesia was developed just
+
 
+
a few years later (Custer 1898). Because analogs
+
 
+
(e.g., procaine) were developed that produce
+
 
+
specific effects with no psychoactive side effects,
+
 
+
cocaine is rarely used as an anesthetic today.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="53%"><strong>Pharmacology and Effects</strong>
+
 
+
Cocaine stimulates the central nervous system,
+
 
+
especially the autonomic (sympathetic) system,
+
 
+
where it inhibits the reuptake of the neurotransmitters
+
 
+
noradrenaline, dopamine, and
+
 
+
serotonin and increases the time in which they
+
 
+
remain in the synaptic cleft. Cocaine has a powerful effect upon the peripheral nervous
+
 
+
system, which explains its efficaciousness as a local
+
 
+
anesthetic. It has strong stimulant and vasoconstricting
+
 
+
properties. Very high dosages of cocaine
+
 
+
are said to be able to induce hallucinations, an
+
 
+
effect that is frequently noted in the neurological
+
 
+
literature (Pulvirenti and Koob 1996,49) as well as
+
 
+
in prose and poetry (Rheiner 1979, 27).
+
 
+
Hallucinations (of nonexistent people, images,
+
 
+
flickering lights) often occur during nights in
+
 
+
which dosages of 2 to 3 g have been taken. For
+
 
+
many people, cocaine also dispels fear. It stimu1ates
+
 
+
a need for alcoholic beverages at the same
+
 
+
time that it strongly suppresses the effects of
+
 
+
alcohol. A similar dynamic applies to nicotine.
+
 
+
In a certain sense, there is something unsatisfying
+
 
+
about the effects of cocaine. A person may
+
 
+
sense that satisfaction could be achieved if the
+
 
+
effects could possibly be increased. However, using
+
 
+
more cocaine does not produce an enhancement
+
 
+
of its effects.
+
 
+
Just as coca was and is employed in South
+
 
+
America as an aphrodisiac, cocaine has a similar
+
 
+
use in the West. Cocaine's reputation as an aphrodisiac
+
 
+
can be traced back to Sigmund Freud (1884)
+
 
+
and has been repeatedly confirmed in the
+
 
+
pharmacological literature:
+
 
+
At a high level of intoxication, central
+
 
+
excitation sets in with characteristic shivering,
+
 
+
an initial state of euphoria that turns into
+
 
+
delirium and hallucinations. For women, the
+
 
+
stimulation ... not infrequently has an erotic
+
 
+
character and has resulted in later accusations
+
 
+
of sexual misconduct against the operating
+
 
+
physician. (Fiihner 1943, 196*)
+
 
+
Some psychiatrists believe that cocaine stimulates
+
 
+
the "sexual center" of the brain (Siegel
+
 
+
1982a). For many users, cocaine is inevitably
+
 
+
associated with sexuality (MacDonald et al. 1988;
+
 
+
Phillips and Wynne 1980,221).
+
 
+
Cocaine relaxes and opens the sphincter
+
 
+
muscles, which makes anal penetration easier as
+
 
+
well as substantially more pleasurable. However,
+
 
+
cocaine (much like ephedrine) often has an
+
 
+
adverse effect on erectile function and consequently
+
 
+
leads to temporary impotence (cf. Siegel
+
 
+
1982a).
+
 
+
The addictive potential of cocaine has been the
+
 
+
subject of much debate. This issue does not appear
+
 
+
to be oriented toward the user as much as it
+
 
+
reflects the current legal situation. In recent years,
+
 
+
there have been efforts to develop a vaccination
+
 
+
against "cocaine addiction." Of course, the
+
 
+
research in this area is conducted on rats (Hellwig
+
 
+
1996). The effect of cocaine on the brain is also an
+
 
+
object of much research, since studies that
+
 
+
confirm the adverse effects of cocaine are likely to
+
 
+
receive financial support from the government. Studies that do not have a political agenda are the
+
 
+
exception rather than the rule (Volkow and Swann
+
 
+
1990).
+
 
+
People who use cocaine frequently suffer from
+
 
+
a runny nose ("coke sniffles") the following day.
+
 
+
Users may counteract this undesirable and
+
 
+
unpleasant aftereffect by rinsing their nose with a
+
 
+
saline solution (e.g., with medicinal salts). Many
+
 
+
users rub vitamin E oil in their nose, a practice
+
 
+
said to regenerate the highly irritated mucous
+
 
+
membranes in the nose (Voigt 1982,72). Although
+
 
+
cocaine can be very helpful in dealing with an
+
 
+
acute attack of hay fever, chronic use can actually
+
 
+
contribute to the condition.
+
 
+
<strong>Crack or Free-Base Cocaine</strong>
+
 
+
In the German press, crack has been portrayed as
+
 
+
"death for a few dollars," "the devil's drug from the
+
 
+
U.S.A.;' et cetera. The general idea seems to be that
+
 
+
"cocaine was a miracle, but crack, crack was better
+
 
+
than sex" or "cocaine was purgatory-but crack is
+
 
+
hell" (in Wiener 6 [1986]: 65,66).
+
 
+
Crack, which is also known as base, free base,
+
 
+
baseball, rocks, Roxanne, and supercoke, is
+
 
+
nothing more than smokeable free-base cocaine
+
 
+
(Siegel 1982b). In other words, crack is cocaine in
+
 
+
the form of a free base (Pulvirenti and Koob 1996,
+
 
+
48). It can be obtained from an aqueous solution
+
 
+
of cocaine hydrochloride to which an alkaline
+
 
+
substance (such as sodium carbonate) is added.
+
 
+
The cocaine salt is transformed into the pure base,
+
 
+
or, in other words, the pure substance. It can then
+
 
+
be purified with ether, causing the cocaine to
+
 
+
crystallize out. Crack is usually "smoked" (i.e.,
+
 
+
vaporized and inhaled) in glass pipes. A typical
+
 
+
dosage ranges from 0.05 to 0.1 g. The effect is very
+
 
+
similar to that of snuffed cocaine but is much
+
 
+
more intense:
+
 
+
Although crack is a derivative of cocaine, there
+
 
+
is little comparison between the mild and
+
 
+
mostly stimulating cocaine inebriation and
+
 
+
the effects of the short-term crack high, which
+
 
+
can literally bowl one over. Whereas cocaine
+
 
+
produces a euphoric sensation of great concentration
+
 
+
and razor-sharp intelligence for
+
 
+
about 20 to 60 minutes, crack lasts for only
+
 
+
three to five minutes while giving the consumer
+
 
+
an incredibly strong kick with regard to
+
 
+
physical sensations as well as the euphoria of
+
 
+
absolute omnipotence. Of course, this has
+
 
+
resulted in many myths, including one that
+
 
+
crack is particularly pure. (Sahihi 1995,37*)
+
 
+
Ethnologists have begun using the field
+
 
+
methods typical of the discipline to study the
+
 
+
"crack phenomenon;' which appears to be a
+
 
+
typically American product (Holden 1989).
+
 
+
"Crack life" is a reflection of the problems in
+
 
+
American society and reveals deep social fissures and cultural anomalies. For users, the "crack way"
+
 
+
is an important form of identity formation. Crack
+
 
+
is frequently found together with prostitution, as
+
 
+
"addicts" may accept it as a form of payment for
+
 
+
sexual services (Carlson and Siegal 1991).
+
 
+
On the street, the following substances may be
+
 
+
used as substitutes for cocaine or crack in times of
+
 
+
shortage: procaine, caffeine, benzocaine, phenylpropanolamine,
+
 
+
lidocaine, and ephedrine (Siegel
+
 
+
1980).
+
 
+
<strong>Commercial Forms and Regulations</strong>
+
 
+
Cocaine hydrochloride is available through the
+
 
+
pharmacy trade. The German Drug Law lists
+
 
+
cocaine as a "narcotic drug in which trafficking is
+
 
+
allowed but which may not be prescribed"
+
 
+
(Korner 1994, 42). In the United States, the Controlled
+
 
+
Substances Act classifies cocaine as a
+
 
+
Schedule II substance.
+
 
+
<strong>Literature</strong>
+
 
+
See also the entries for Erythroxylum coca,
+
 
+
Erythroxylum novogranatense, atropine, and
+
 
+
tropane alkaloids.
+
 
+
Ashley, Richard. 1975. Cocaine: Its history, use and
+
 
+
effects. New York: St. Martin's Press.
+
 
+
Aurep, B. von. 1880. Dber die physiologische
+
 
+
Wirkung des CocaYn. Archiv fur Physiologie
+
 
+
21:38-77.
+
 
+
Badekerl, Klaus. 1983. Ein Kilo Schnee von Gestern.
+
 
+
Munich and Zurich: Piper.
+
 
+
Benn, Gottfried. 1982. Gedichte, in der Fassung der
+
 
+
Erstdrucke. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer.
+
 
+
Boye, Karin. 1986. Kallocain: Roman aus dem 21.
+
 
+
Jahrhundert. Kiel: Neuer Malik Verlag.
+
 
+
Biisch, H. P., and W. Rummel. 1990.
+
 
+
Lokalanasthetika, Lokalanasthesie. In Allgemeine
+
 
+
und spezielle Pharmakologie und Toxikologie (5th
+
 
+
ed.), ed. W. Forth, D. Heuschler, and W. Rummel,
+
 
+
490-96. Mannheim, Vienna, and Zurich: B. 1.
+
 
+
Wissenschaftsverlag.
+
 
+
Carlson, Robert G., and Harvey A. Siegal. 1991. The
+
 
+
crack life: An ethnographic overview of crack use
+
 
+
and sexual behavior among African-Americans
+
 
+
in a Midwest metropolitan city. Journal of
+
 
+
Psychoactive Drugs 23 (1): 11-20.
+
 
+
Crowley, Aleister. 1973. Cocaine. San Francisco:
+
 
+
And/Or Press.
+
 
+
Custer, Julius, Jr. 1898. Cocain und
+
 
+
Infiltrationanasthesie. Basel: Benno Schwabe.
+
 
+
Ellis, Bret Easton. 1987. Less Than Zero. New York:
+
 
+
Random House.
+
 
+
Fauser, Jorg. 1983. Der Schneemann. Reinbek:
+
 
+
Rowohlt.
+
 
+
Fischer 5., A. Raskin, and E. Uhlenhuth, eds. 1987.
+
 
+
Cocaine: Clinical and biobehavioral aspects. New
+
 
+
York: Oxford University Press.
+
 
+
Freud, Sigmund. 1884. Uher Coca. Centralblatt fur
+
 
+
die gesamte Therapie 2:289-314. Repr. in
+
 
+
Taschner and Richtberg 1982,206-31 (see
+
 
+
below).
+
 
+
---. 1885. Dber die Allgemeinwirkung des
+
 
+
Cocains. Medizinisch-chirurgisches Centralblatt
+
 
+
20:374-75.
+
 
+
---.1887. Bemerkungen tiber Cocainsucht und
+
 
+
Cocainfurcht, mit Beziehung auf einen Vortrag
+
 
+
von W. A. Hammonds. Wiener medizinische
+
 
+
Wochenschrift 37:927-32.
+
 
+
---.1996. Schriften uber Kokain. Frankfurt/M.:
+
 
+
Fischer. (Orig. pub. 1884.)
+
 
+
Gay, George R. 1981. You've corne a long way, baby!
+
 
+
Coke time for the new American lady of the
+
 
+
eighties. Journal ofPsychoactive Drugs 13 (4):
+
 
+
297-318.
+
 
+
Gottlieb, Adam. 1979. The pleasures ofcocaine. San
+
 
+
Francisco: And/Or Press.
+
 
+
Grinspoon, Lester, and James B. Bakalar. 1985.
+
 
+
Cocaine: A drug and its social evolution. Rev. ed.
+
 
+
New York: Basic Books.
+
 
+
Hartmann, Walter. 1990. Informationsreihe Drogen:
+
 
+
Kokain. Markt Erlbach: Raymond Martin Verlag.
+
 
+
Hellwig, Bettina. 1996. Impfung gegen Cocain?
+
 
+
Deutsche Apotheker-Zeitung 136 (4): 46/270.
+
 
+
Holden, Constance. 1989. Streetwise crack research.
+
 
+
Science 246:1376-81.
+
 
+
Holmstedt, Bo, Eva Jaatmaa, Kurt Leander, and
+
 
+
Timothy Plowman. 1977. Determination
+
 
+
of cocaine in some South American species of
+
 
+
Erythroxylum using mass fragmentography.
+
 
+
Phytochemistry 16:1753-55.
+
 
+
Kennedy, J. 1985. Coca exotics: The illustrated story of
+
 
+
cocaine. New York: Cornwall Books.
+
 
+
Koller, Carl [= Karl]. 1884. Dber die Verwendung des
+
 
+
CocaYn zur Anasthetisierung am Auge. Wiener
+
 
+
medizinische Wochenschrift 34: 1276-1278,
+
 
+
1309-1l.
+
 
+
---. 1935. Nachtragliche Bemerkungen tiber die
+
 
+
ersten Anfange der Lokalanasthesie. Wiener
+
 
+
medizinische Wochenschrift 85:7.
+
 
+
---. 1941. History of cocaine as a local
+
 
+
anesthetic. Journal ofthe American Medical
+
 
+
Association 117: 1284.
+
 
+
Lindgren, J.-E. 1981. Guide to the analysis of cocaine
+
 
+
and its metabolites in biological material. Journal
+
 
+
ofEthnopharmacology 3:337-5l.
+
 
+
Lossen, W. 1865. Dber das Cocain. Liebig's Annalen
+
 
+
133:351-71.
+
 
+
MacDonald, P. T., V. Waldorf, C. Reinarman, and
+
 
+
S. Murphy. 1988. Heavy cocaine use and sexual
+
 
+
behavior. Journal ofDrug Issues 18 (3): 437-55.
+
 
+
Maier, Hans Wolfgang. 1926. Der Kokainismus.
+
 
+
Leipzig: Thieme.
+
 
+
Mcinerney, Jay. 1984. Bright Lights, Big City. New
+
 
+
York: Knopf.
+
 
+
Morales, Edmundo. 1989. Cocaine: White gold rush in
+
 
+
Peru. Tucson and London: The University of
+
 
+
Arizona Press.
+
 
+
Niemann, Albert. 1860. Dber eine neue organische
+
 
+
Base in den Cocablattern. Dissertation,
+
 
+
Gottingen University.
+
 
+
Pernice, Ludwig. 1890. Dber Cocainanaesthesie.
+
 
+
Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift 16:287.
+
 
+
Phillips, Joel 1., and Ronald D. Wynne. 1980.
+
 
+
Cocaine: The mystique and the reality. New York:
+
 
+
Avon Books.
+
 
+
Plasket, B., and E. Quillen. 1985. The white stuff. New
+
 
+
York: Dell Publishing Co.
+
 
+
Pulvirenti, Luigi, and George F. Koob. 1996. Die
+
 
+
Neurobiologie der Kokainabhangigkeit. Spektrum
+
 
+
der Wissenschaft 2:48-55. (An unethical and
+
 
+
nauseating study on animals.)
+
 
+
Rheiner, Walter. 1979. Kokain: Eine Novelle und
+
 
+
andere Prosa. Berlin and Darmstadt: Agora
+
 
+
Verlag. Repr. 2nd ed., 1982.
+
 
+
Richards, Eugene. 1994. Cocaine true, cocaine blue.
+
 
+
New York: Aperture.
+
 
+
Roles, R., M. Goldberg, and R. G. Sharrar. 1990. Risk
+
 
+
factors for syphilis: Cocaine use and prostitution.
+
 
+
American Journal ofPublic Health 80 (7): 853-57.
+
 
+
Sabbag, Robert. 1976. Snowblind: A briefcareer in the
+
 
+
cocaine trade. Indianapolis and New York: The
+
 
+
Bobbs-Merrill Co.
+
 
+
Sauloy, Mylene, and Yves Le Bonniec. 1994.
+
 
+
Tropenschnee-Kokain: Die Kartelle, ihre Banken,
+
 
+
ihre Gewinne. Ein Wirtschaftsreport. Reinbek bei
+
 
+
Hamburg: Rowohlt.
+
 
+
Siegel, Ronald K. 1978. Cocaine hallucinations.
+
 
+
American Journal ofPsychiatry 135:309-14.
+
 
+
---.1980. Cocaine substitutes. New England
+
 
+
Journal ofMedicine 302:817-18.
+
 
+
---. 1982a. Cocaine and sexual dysfunction: The
+
 
+
curse of Mama Coca. Journal ofPsychoactive
+
 
+
Drugs 14 (1-2): 71-74.
+
 
+
---. 1982b. Cocaine smoking. Journal of
+
 
+
Psychoactive Drugs 14 (4): 271-359.
+
 
+
Smith, David E., and Donald R. Wesson. 1978.
+
 
+
Cocaine. Journal ofPsychedelic Drugs 10 (4):
+
 
+
351-60.
+
 
+
Springer, Alfred, ed. 1989. Kokain: Mythos und
+
 
+
Realitiit-Eine kritisch dokumentierte Anthologie.
+
 
+
Vienna and Munich: Verlag Christian
+
 
+
Brandstatter.
+
 
+
Taschner, Karl-Ludwig, and Werner Richtberg. 1982.
+
 
+
Kokain-Report. Wiesbaden: Akademische
+
 
+
Verlagsgesellschaft.
+
 
+
Thamm, Berndt Georg. 1985. Das Kartell: Von
+
 
+
Drogen und Miirkten-ein modernes Miirchen.
+
 
+
Basel: Sphinx.
+
 
+
---. 1986. Andenschnee: Die lange Linie des
+
 
+
Kokain. Basel: Sphinx.
+
 
+
Timmerberg, Helge. 1996. Kaltmacher Kokain.
+
 
+
Tempo 3:34-42.
+
 
+
Turner, Canton E., Beverly S. Urbanek, G. Michael
+
 
+
Wall, and Coy W. Waller. 1988. Cocaine: An
+
 
+
annotated bibliography. 2 vols. Jackson and
+
 
+
London: Research Institute of Pharmaceutical
+
 
+
Sciences/University Press of Mississippi.
+
 
+
Voigt, Hermann P. 1982. Zum Thema: Kokain. Basel:
+
 
+
Sphinx.
+
 
+
Volkow, Nora v., and Alan C. Swann, eds. 1990.
+
 
+
Cocaine in the brain. New Brunswick, N.J.:
+
 
+
Rutgers University Press. (See book review by
+
 
+
Ronald Siegel in Journal ofPsychoactive Drugs 23
+
 
+
(1; 1991): 93 f.)
+
 
+
vom Scheidt, Jurgen. 1973. Freud und das Kokain.
+
 
+
Psyche (Munich) 27:385-430.
+
 
+
---.1981. Kokain. In Rausch und Realitat, ed. G.
+
 
+
Volger, 1:398-402. Cologne: Rautenstrauch-Joest
+
 
+
Museum fur Volkerkunde.
+
 
+
Wesson, Donald R. 1982. Cocaine use by masseuses.
+
 
+
Journal ofPsychoactive Drugs 14 (1-2): 75-76.
+
 
+
Wolfer, P. 1922. Das Cocain, seine Bedeutung und
+
 
+
seine Geschichte. Schweizerische medizinische
+
 
+
Wochenschrift 3:674-79.</td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
</table>
+

Latest revision as of 00:56, 13 December 2017

Cocaine.jpg

Cocaine is a powerful CNSCentral Nervous System stimulant, and most consumed psychoactive plant constituent in the world. Cocaine is known among its users for the 'rush' it provides when first insufflated. It's a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is gathered from the leaves of the coca plant. (Erythroxylon coca). Pure cocaine (as a base) is not water soluble but can be dissolved in alcohol, chloroform, turpentine oil, olive oil, or acetone. Cocaine salts are water soluble.

The name comes from "coca" (Quechua "cuca") and "ine" because of its use as a local anesthetic. Later the suffix "-caine" was later used to form names of synthetic local anesthetics.

History

For over a thousand years people have chewed the leaves of Eryhtoxylon coca, a plant that has many alkaloids, including cocaine.

The isolation of the Cocaine alkaloid was not achieved until 1855 by the German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke, who named the alkaloid "Erythroxyline"

In 1856 Albert Niemann developed an improved purification process.

In 1879. Vassili von Anrep devised an experiment to demonstrate the analgesic properties of this alkaloid. He prepared two separate jars, one containing a cocaine-salt solution, while the other contained only salt water. He then submerged a frog's legs into the two jars, one leg in the treatment and one in the control, and proceeded to stimulate the legs in several different ways. The leg that had been immersed in the cocaine solution reacted very differently from the leg that had been immersed in salt water.

Later, other substances derived from cocaine, including eucaine, procaine (= Novocaine), tetracaine (= Pantocaine) (1930), lidocaine (= Xylocaine) (1944), mepivacaine (= Scandicaine) (1957), prilocain (= Xylonest) (1960), bupivacaine (1963), and etidocain (= Duranest) (1972), were also used as local anesthetics (Busch and Rummel 1990; Schneider 1993, 19*). Holocaine was also regarded as a substitute.

Usage

Ritual Use

Cocaine has been called the champagne of drugs, the drug of high society, the drug of the rich, et cetera - it is certainly most often associated with the wealthier classes. As a result, consumption of the drug has taken on a strong social character. Cocaine is rarely used by one person alone, and when it is taken with others, the consumption follows a rather well-defined ritual. The person providing the costly substance lays out several lines (preferably on a mirror), then takes a currency note (often of high value) and rolls it up. One end of the rolled bill is placed in a nostril and held with one hand, while the other hand is used to press the other nostril closed. Half of one line, or a small line, is then snuffed into the nostril. The person then switches nostrils and snuffs the remaining powder, after which the mirror is passed to the next person. This circle may be repeated several time, and it is customary for each of several participants to prepare lines from their own supply.

Crack or Free-Base Cocaine

In the German press, crack has been portrayed as "death for a few dollars," "the devil's drug from the U.S.A.;' et cetera. The general idea seems to be that "cocaine was a miracle, but crack, crack was better than sex" or "cocaine was purgatory-but crack is hell" (in Wiener 6 [1986]: 65,66). Crack, which is also known as base, free base, baseball, rocks, Roxanne, and supercoke, is nothing more than smokeable free-base cocaine (Siegel 1982b). In other words, crack is cocaine in the form of a free base (Pulvirenti and Koob 1996, 48). It can be obtained from an aqueous solution of cocaine hydrochloride to which an alkaline substance (such as sodium carbonate) is added. The cocaine salt is transformed into the pure base, or, in other words, the pure substance. It can then be purified with ether, causing the cocaine to crystallize out. Crack is usually "smoked" (i.e., vaporized and inhaled) in glass pipes. A typical dosage ranges from 0.05 to 0.1 g. The effect is very similar to that of snuffed cocaine but is much more intense: Although crack is a derivative of cocaine, there is little comparison between the mild and mostly stimulating cocaine inebriation and the effects of the short-term crack high, which can literally bowl one over. Whereas cocaine produces a euphoric sensation of great concentration and razor-sharp intelligence for about 20 to 60 minutes, crack lasts for only three to five minutes while giving the consumer an incredibly strong kick with regard to physical sensations as well as the euphoria of absolute omnipotence. Of course, this has resulted in many myths, including one that crack is particularly pure. (Sahihi 1995,37*) Ethnologists have begun using the field methods typical of the discipline to study the "crack phenomenon;' which appears to be a typically American product (Holden 1989). "Crack life" is a reflection of the problems in American society and reveals deep social fissures and cultural anomalies. For users, the "crack way" is an important form of identity formation. Crack is frequently found together with prostitution, as "addicts" may accept it as a form of payment for sexual services (Carlson and Siegal 1991).

On the street, the following substances may be used as substitutes for cocaine or crack in times of shortage: procaine, caffeine, benzocaine, phenylpropanolamine, lidocaine, and ephedrine (Siegel 1980).

Medicinal Use

The medicinal applications of cocaine were discovered only a short time after the isolation of the molecule itself. Cocaine was initially used for local anesthesia in ophthalmology and dentistry, and infiltration anesthesia was developed just a few years later (Custer 1898). Because analogs (e.g., procaine) were developed that produce specific effects with no psychoactive side effects, cocaine is rarely used as an anesthetic today.

Dosage

A "line" of cocaine typically contains between 20 and 100 mg of cocaine, depending on the purity of the substance and the consumer's preference. Cocaine promotes compulsive redosing, with many users consuming up to 2-3g within a night - however it should be noted the comedown will be worse the more cocaine is ingested in an evening.

Depending on purity, cocaine dosage will vary

Insufflated
Light 20-50mg
Common 50-100mg
Strong 100-150mg
Heavy 150mg+

Duration

Insufflated
Onset 1-3 minutes
Total 1-1.5 hours

Effects

Very high dosages of cocaine are said to be able to induce hallucinations, an effect that is frequently noted in the neurological literature (Pulvirenti and Koob 1996,49) as well as in prose and poetry (Rheiner 1979, 27). Hallucinations (of nonexistent people, images, flickering lights) often occur during nights in which dosages of 2 to 3 g have been taken. For many people, cocaine also dispels fear. It stimulates a need for alcoholic beverages at the same time that it strongly suppresses the effects of alcohol. A similar dynamic applies to nicotine. In a certain sense, there is something unsatisfying about the effects of cocaine. A person may sense that satisfaction could be achieved if the effects could possibly be increased. However, using more cocaine does not produce an enhancement of its effects. Just as coca was and is employed in SouthAmerica as an aphrodisiac, cocaine has a similar use in the West. Cocaine's reputation as an aphrodisiac can be traced back to Sigmund Freud (1884) and has been repeatedly confirmed in the pharmacological literature. At a high level of intoxication, central excitation sets in with characteristic shivering, an initial state of euphoria that turns into delirium and hallucinations. For women, the stimulation ... not infrequently has an erotic character and has resulted in later accusations of sexual misconduct against the operating physician. (Fiihner 1943, 196*) Some psychiatrists believe that cocaine stimulates the "sexual center" of the brain (Siegel 1982a). For many users, cocaine is inevitably associated with sexuality (MacDonald et al. 1988; Phillips and Wynne 1980,221). Cocaine relaxes and opens the sphincter muscles, which makes anal penetration easier as well as substantially more pleasurable. However, cocaine (much like ephedrine) often has an adverse effect on erectile function and consequently leads to temporary impotence (cf. Siegel 1982a).

Positive

  • Elevated Mood
  • Euphoria
  • Stimulation

Neutral

  • Hyper-inflated ego
  • Numbing effects
  • Sweating
  • Dilated pupils
  • Decreased Appetite
  • Decreased Sleep

Negative

  • Increase in irritability
  • Tachycardia (Raised Heartrate)
  • Can cause arrhythmias (Irregular heart rhythms)
  • Hypertension (High blood pressure)
  • Hyperthermia (Increase in body temperature)
  • Urge to redose
  • Dehydration
  • Restlessness
  • May cause muscle tremors

Harm Reduction

Avoid: 2C-T-X, aMT, Tramadol, Meperidine, MAOIMonoamine oxidase inhibitor are drugs that inhibit the action of monoamine oxidase in the brain and so allow monoamines to accumulate.'s. See Drug combinations for more.

Addiction

The addictive potential of cocaine has been the subject of much debate. This issue does not appear to be oriented toward the user as much as it reflects the current legal situation. In recent years, there have been efforts to develop a vaccination against "cocaine addiction." Of course, the research in this area is conducted on rats (Hellwig 1996). The effect of cocaine on the brain is also an object of much research, since studies that confirm the adverse effects of cocaine are likely to receive financial support from the government. Studies that do not have a political agenda are the exception rather than the rule (Volkow and Swann 1990).

People who use cocaine frequently suffer from a runny nose ("coke sniffles") the following day. Users may counteract this undesirable and unpleasant aftereffect by rinsing their nose with a saline solution (e.g., with medicinal salts). Many users rub vitamin E oil in their nose, a practice said to regenerate the highly irritated mucous membranes in the nose (Voigt 1982,72). Although cocaine can be very helpful in dealing with an acute attack of hay fever, chronic use can actually contribute to the condition.

Chemistry and Pharmacology

Cocaine stimulates the central nervous system, especially the autonomic (sympathetic) system, where it inhibits the reuptake of the neurotransmitters noradrenaline, dopamineA neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention, learning, and the brain’s pleasure and reward system., and serotoninA monoamine neurotransmitter, biochemically derived from tryptophan, that is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being. and increases the time in which they remain in the synaptic cleft. Cocaine is a triple reuptake inhibitor (SNDRISerotonin–Norepinephrine–Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitor). It also acts as local anesthetic. It has strong stimulant and vasoconstricting properties.

Cocaine molecule.gif

Production

The Colombian and Peruvian colloquial term for coca plantations used in cocaine production are known as "cocales". Bolivian huanaco leaves (Erythroxylum coca var. coca) are preferred for cocaine production because they are the highest yielding. Under optimal conditions, it is possible to produce 1 kg of pure cocaine from 100 kg of coca leaves. In the early 1980s, some 100 tons of pure cocaine were exported from Colombia alone. Although cultivation of coca for traditional use is legal in Colombia, this only makes a fraction of the total coca produced for the illegal drug market. The methods of extracting cocaine from the coca plant are relatively unchanged, utilizing an acid/base extraction method, which is a common method of extracting alkaloids from plant matter. Due to the high demand for cocaine, production in some areas is out of financial necessity, due to lack of other employment opportunities, or low profit margins of legal crops.

Eradication of coca production has been mostly ineffective, hampered by the appearance of new strains of coca that show traits such as higher potency (increasing the profit margins of cocaine producers) and resistance to defoliants. Efforts in Colombia to reduce illicit coca cultivation have resulted only in decentralization of production.

Legal status

Possession of cocaine without a medical prescription is illegal pretty much worldwide.

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