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<!-- This is a basic drug template. Feel free to copy/paste it in new articles -->
+
[[File:Xanax.jpg|thumb|250px|Alprazolam pills and prescription bottle]]
  
== General Information ==
 
  
Classification: Stimulant/Psychedelic/...
+
Benzodiazepines are drugs which act upon the GABA(A) receptor, and produce a general set of effects which vary by compound, mostly being sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant. The first benzodiazepine, Chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which has also marketed diazepam (Valium) since 1963.
  
=== History ===
+
= Dosage =  
  
== Dosage ==
+
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 +
|+Comparison of benzodiazepines
 +
! Chemical name (brand name)
 +
! Half-Life [Active Metabolites]
 +
! Dose Equiv. of 10mg Diazepam (Oral)
 +
! Class
 +
|-
 +
|  [[Alprazolam|Alprazolam (Xanax)]]
 +
| 6 - 12 hours
 +
| 0.5 mg
 +
| Anxiolytic
 +
|-
 +
| Bromazepam (Lexotan, Lexomil)
 +
| 10 - 20 hours
 +
| 5 - 6 mg
 +
| Anxiolytic
 +
|-
 +
| Brotizolam (Lendormin)
 +
| 2 - 6 hours
 +
| .25mg
 +
| Hypnotic
 +
|-
 +
| Chlordiazepoxide (Librium)
 +
| 5 - 30 hours [36 - 200 hours]
 +
| 25 mg
 +
| Anxiolytic
 +
|-
 +
| Clobazam (Frisium, Urbanol)
 +
| 12 - 60 hours
 +
| 20 mg
 +
| Anxiolytic
 +
|-
 +
| Clonazepam (Klonopin)
 +
| 18 - 50 hours
 +
| 0.5 mg
 +
| Anxiolytic
 +
|-
 +
| [[Clonazolam]]
 +
| N/A
 +
| 0.2 mg
 +
| Anxiolytic
 +
|-
 +
| Clorazepate (Tranxene)
 +
| [36 - 200 hours]
 +
| 15 mg
 +
| Anxiolytic
 +
|-
 +
| [[Diazepam|Diazepam (Valium)]]
 +
| 20 - 100 hours [36 - 200 hours]
 +
| 10 mg
 +
| Anxiolytic
 +
|-
 +
| Diclazepam (Ro5-3448)
 +
| ~42 hours
 +
| 1mg
 +
| Anxiolytic
 +
|-
 +
| Estazolam (ProSom, Nuctalon)
 +
| 10 - 24 hours
 +
| 1 - 2 mg
 +
| Hypnotic
 +
|-
 +
| [[Etizolam|Etizolam (Etilaam, Etizola, Etizest, Depas)]]
 +
| 4-12 hours
 +
| 1mg
 +
| Anxiolytic
 +
|-
 +
| Flubromazepam
 +
| 106 hours
 +
| 6 - 8 mg
 +
| Hypnotic
 +
|-
 +
| Flubromazolam
 +
| Long
 +
| .25mg
 +
| Hypnotic
 +
|-
 +
| [[Flunitrazepam|Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol)]]
 +
| 18 - 26 hours [36 - 200 hours]
 +
| 1 mg
 +
| Hypnotic
 +
|-
 +
| Flutoprazepam (Restas)
 +
| 60 - 90 hours
 +
| ~2.5 mg
 +
| Hypnotic
 +
|-
 +
| Flurazepam (Dalmane)
 +
| [40 - 250 hours]
 +
| 15 - 30 mg
 +
| Hypnotic
 +
|-
 +
| Halazepam (Paxipam)
 +
| [30 - 100 hours]
 +
| 20 mg
 +
| Anxiolytic
 +
|-
 +
| Ketazolam (Anseren)
 +
| 30 - 100 hours [36 - 200 hours]
 +
| 15 - 30 mg
 +
| Anxiolytic
 +
|-
 +
| Loprazolam (Dormonoct)
 +
| 6 - 12 hours
 +
| 1 - 2 mg
 +
| Hypnotic
 +
|-
 +
| Lorazepam (Ativan)
 +
| 10 - 20 hours
 +
| 1 mg
 +
| Anxiolytic
 +
|-
 +
| Lormetazepam (Noctamid)
 +
| 10 - 12 hours
 +
| 1 - 2 mg
 +
| Hypnotic
 +
|-
 +
| Midazolam (Dormicum)
 +
| 1.6 - 8.3 hours
 +
| 10mg
 +
| Hypnotic
 +
|-
 +
| Medazepam (Nobrium)
 +
| 36 - 200 hours
 +
| 10 mg
 +
| Anxiolytic
 +
|-
 +
| Nitrazepam (Mogadon)
 +
| 15 - 38 hours
 +
| 10 mg
 +
| Hypnotic
 +
|-
 +
| Nordazepam (Nordaz)
 +
| 36 - 200 hours
 +
| 10 mg
 +
| Anxiolytic
 +
|-
 +
| Oxazepam (Serax)
 +
| 4 - 15 hours
 +
| 20 mg
 +
| Anxiolytic
 +
|-
 +
| Phenazepam
 +
| 60 hours
 +
| ~1 mg.
 +
| Hypnotic
 +
|-
 +
| Prazepam (Centrax)
 +
| [36 - 200 hours]
 +
| 10 - 20 mg
 +
| Anxiolytic
 +
|-
 +
| Pyrazolam
 +
| Short
 +
| .83 mg
 +
| Anxiolytic
 +
|-
 +
| Quazepam (Doral)
 +
| 25 - 100 hours
 +
| 20 mg
 +
| Hypnotic
 +
|-
 +
| Temazepam (Restoril)
 +
| 8 - 22 hours
 +
| 20 mg
 +
| Hypnotic
 +
|-
 +
| Triazolam (Halcion)
 +
| 2 hours
 +
| 0.5 mg
 +
| Hypnotic
 +
|}
  
=== Oral ===
+
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 +
|+Non-benzodiazepines commonly referred to as Z-drugs
 +
! Chemical name (brand name)
 +
! Half-Life [Active Metabolites]
 +
! Dose Equiv. of 10mg Diazepam (Oral)
 +
! Class
 +
|-
 +
| Zaleplon (Sonata)
 +
| 2 hours
 +
| 20 mg
 +
| Hypnotic
 +
|-
 +
| [[Zolpidem|Zolpidem (Ambien)]]
 +
| 2 hours
 +
| 20 mg
 +
| Hypnotic
 +
|-
 +
| Zopiclone (Imovane)
 +
| 5 - 6 hours
 +
| 15 mg
 +
| Hypnotic
 +
|-
 +
| Eszopiclone (Lunesta)
 +
| 6 hours
 +
| 3 mg
 +
| Hypnotic
 +
|}
  
Onset:
+
= Effects =
Alprazolam IR : 8-25 minutes
+
== Positive ==
Alprazolam XR : 25-75 minutes
+
Diazepam : Rapid
+
Clonazapam: 1 hour
+
  
Peak Benefit: 1.6 hours
+
* Anti-Anxiety
Alprazolam IR : 90 minutes
+
* Sedative
Alprazolam XR : 25-75 minutes
+
* Muscle relaxant
Diazepam : 2-4 hours
+
Clonazapam: 1-4 hours
+
== Negative ==
  
Half/Life and Duration
+
* High addiction potential
Triazolam: 2.5 Hours
+
* Withdrawals can be fatal
Lorazepam:
+
* Risk of blackout
Alprazolam IR : 11 hour half life - 5 hour duration
+
* Inability to drink
Alprazolam XR :11-16 hour hour half life, 11 hour duration
+
* Inability to drive
Diazepam : 20-100 hour half life - 6-8 hour duration
+
* Loss of balance
Clonazepam: 18-50 hour half life - 12+ hours
+
* Memory Loss
 +
* Procrastination
 +
* "Hangover"
 +
* Long-term effects
 +
* High addiction potential
  
Dosages Depend on tolerance.
+
= Harm Reduction =
  
Potentiators:
+
* Avoid driving and operating machinery
-Grapefruit juice
+
  
Avoid:
+
* Recommended time (pauses) between using the substance
-Excessive drinking (you will die)
+
  
=== Smoked ===
+
* Addiction potential - High
  
Duration: X hours
+
* Risk of blackouts
  
Onset: X minutes
+
* Risk of death when mixed with alcohol or other drugs. '''An extremely high percentage of drug-related deaths are due to mixing benzos with other drugs, especially opiates and alcohol.'''
  
Low dose: X mg
+
* Mental illness
  
Medium (typical) dose: X mg
+
* Heart issues
  
High dose: X mg
+
* CNS depressant when mixed with other drugs
  
===  Insufflated ===  
+
== Research Chemicals ==
  
Duration: X hours
+
The main danger of the drugs in this class is the risk of blacking out or overdosing by mixing it with other CNS depressants.
  
Onset: X minutes
+
Most of the research chemicals from this class are usually active under 10mg's. The best course of action with these substances is putting X amount of active chemical into X amount of your solvent of choice (Such as Propylene-Glycol or Ethanol) And using an oral syringe to get the dose you want. Granted a fair amount are sold are either in presses or on a blotter.
  
Low dose: X mg
+
See the [[Research Chemicals]] page for more information.
  
Medium (typical) dose: X mg
+
= Chemistry and Pharmacology =
 +
The term benzodiazepine is the chemical name for the heterocyclic ring system, which is a fusion between the benzene and diazepine ring systems. Under Hantzsch–Widman nomenclature, a diazepine is a heterocycle with two nitrogen atoms, five carbon atom and the maximum possible number of cumulative double bonds. The "benzo" prefix indicates the benzene ring fused onto the diazepine ring.
 +
Benzodiazepine drugs are substituted 1,4-benzodiazepines, although the chemical term can refer to many other compounds that do not have useful pharmacological properties. Different benzodiazepine drugs have different side groups attached to this central structure. The different side groups affect the binding of the molecule to the GABAA receptor and so modulate the pharmacological properties. Many of the pharmacologically active "classical" benzodiazepine drugs contain the 5-phenyl-1H-benzo[e][1,4]diazepin-2(3H)-one substructure.
 +
Nonbenzodiazepines also bind to the benzodiazepine binding site on the GABA(A) receptor and possess similar pharmacological properties. While the nonbenzodiazepines are by definition structurally unrelated to the benzodiazepines, both classes of drugs possess a common pharmacophore, which explains their binding to a common receptor site
  
High dose: X mg
+
[[File:benzo.png|500px]]
  
===  Injected ===
 
  
Duration: X hours
+
* 2-keto compounds:
 +
::Chlordiazepoxide, Clorazepate, Diazepam, Flurazepam, Halazepam, Prazepam, and others.
 +
* 3-hydroxy compounds:
 +
::Lorazepam, Lormetazepam,Oxazepam, Temazepam
 +
* 7-nitro compounds:
 +
::Clonazepam, Flunitrazepam, Nimetazepam, Nitrazepam
 +
* Triazolo compounds:
 +
::Adinazolam, Alprazolam, Clonazolam, Estazolam, Triazolam
 +
* Imidazo compounds
 +
::Climazolam, Loprazolam, Midazolam
  
Onset: X minutes
+
= Images =
  
Low dose: X mg
+
<gallery mode="packed-hover" heights="200px">
 +
Image:Xanax.jpg|''(Purepac) alprazolam pills and prescription bottle''
 +
Image:Alprazolam_solution.jpg|''Alprazolam solved in propylene glycol''
 +
Image:Alpraz.jpg|''.5mg (Qualitest) alprazolam pills''
 +
Image:Ativan.png|''Lorazepam (Ativan) pill''
 +
</gallery>
  
Medium (typical) dose: X mg
+
= Links =
 
+
http://www.dr-bob.org/tips/bzd.html
High dose: X mg
+
 
+
== Effects ==  
+
 
+
=== Positive ===
+
 
+
=== Neutral ===
+
 
+
=== Negative ===
+
 
+
=== After effects ===
+
 
+
* "Hangover"?
+
 
+
* Afterglow
+
 
+
* Long term effects
+
 
+
== Harm Reduction ==
+
 
+
* Avoid driving and operating heavy machinery
+
 
+
* Recommended time (pauses) between using the substance
+
 
+
* Addiction potential?
+
 
+
* Risk of death?
+
 
+
* Mental illness?
+
 
+
* Heart issues?
+
 
+
== Chemistry and Pharmacology ==
+
 
+
=== Production ===
+
 
+
== Images ==
+
 
+
<gallery>
+
File:Example.jpg| ''italic caption''
+
File:Example.jpg|
+
File:Example.jpg|
+
File:Example.jpg|
+
File:Example.jpg|
+
</gallery>
+
  
== Legal ==
+
[http://tripsit.me/history-of-etizolam History of Etizolam on Tripsit.me]
  
===  Europe ===  
+
= Sources =
  
===  America ===
+
Madsen U, Bräuner-Osborne H, Greenwood JR, Johansen TN, Krogsgaard-Larsen P, Liljefors T, Nielsen M, Frølund B (2005). "GABA and Glutamate receptor ligands and their therapeutic potential in CNS disorders". In Gad SC. Drug Discovery Handbook. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley-Interscience/J. Wiley. pp. 797–907. ISBN 0-471-21384-5.
 +
^ a b Panico, R.; Powell, W. H.; Richer, J. C., eds. (1993). A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds. IUPAC/Blackwell Science. pp. 40–3. ISBN 0-632-03488-2.; Moss GP (1998). "Nomenclature of fused and bridged fused ring systems (IUPAC Recommendations 1998)". Pure Appl Chem 70 (1): 143–216. doi:10.1351/pac199870010143.
 +
Olsen RW, Betz H (2006). "GABA and glycine". In Siegel GJ, Albers RW, Brady S, Price DD (eds.). Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects (7th ed.). Elsevier. pp. 291–302. ISBN 0-12-088397-X.
 +
Shorter E (2005). "Benzodiazepines". A Historical Dictionary of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press. pp. 41–2. ISBN 0-19-517668-5.
 +
Zavala F (1997). "Benzodiazepines, anxiety and immunity". Pharmacol Ther 75 (3): 199–216. doi:10.1016/S0163-7258(97)00055-7. PMID 9504140.
 +
Narimatsu E, Niiya T, Kawamata M, Namiki A (2006). "[The mechanisms of depression by benzodiazepines, barbiturates and propofol of excitatory synaptic transmissions mediated by adenosine neuromodulation]". Masui (in Japanese) 55 (6): 684–91. PMID 16780077.
 +
Juergens, MD, Steven M. "Understanding Benzodiazepines". California Society of Addiction Medicine. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
 +
Carlo, Pia; Renata Finollo, Anna Ledda, Giovanni Brambilla (January 1989). "Absence of liver DNA fragmentation in rats treated with high oral doses of 32 benzodiazepine drugs". Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 12 (1): 34–41. doi:10.1016/0272-0590(89)90059-6. PMID 2925017.
  
===  Asia ===
+
[[Category:Drug class]]

Latest revision as of 00:15, 8 July 2018

Alprazolam pills and prescription bottle


Benzodiazepines are drugs which act upon the GABAGamma aminobutyric acid an amino acid that is found in the central nervous system; acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter.(A) receptor, and produce a general set of effects which vary by compound, mostly being sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant. The first benzodiazepine, Chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which has also marketed diazepam (Valium) since 1963.

Dosage

Comparison of benzodiazepines
Chemical name (brand name) Half-Life [Active Metabolites] Dose Equiv. of 10mg Diazepam (Oral) Class
Alprazolam (Xanax) 6 - 12 hours 0.5 mg Anxiolytic
Bromazepam (Lexotan, Lexomil) 10 - 20 hours 5 - 6 mg Anxiolytic
Brotizolam (Lendormin) 2 - 6 hours .25mg Hypnotic
Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) 5 - 30 hours [36 - 200 hours] 25 mg Anxiolytic
Clobazam (Frisium, Urbanol) 12 - 60 hours 20 mg Anxiolytic
Clonazepam (Klonopin) 18 - 50 hours 0.5 mg Anxiolytic
Clonazolam N/A 0.2 mg Anxiolytic
Clorazepate (Tranxene) [36 - 200 hours] 15 mg Anxiolytic
Diazepam (Valium) 20 - 100 hours [36 - 200 hours] 10 mg Anxiolytic
Diclazepam (Ro5-3448) ~42 hours 1mg Anxiolytic
Estazolam (ProSom, Nuctalon) 10 - 24 hours 1 - 2 mg Hypnotic
Etizolam (Etilaam, Etizola, Etizest, Depas) 4-12 hours 1mg Anxiolytic
Flubromazepam 106 hours 6 - 8 mg Hypnotic
Flubromazolam Long .25mg Hypnotic
Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) 18 - 26 hours [36 - 200 hours] 1 mg Hypnotic
Flutoprazepam (Restas) 60 - 90 hours ~2.5 mg Hypnotic
Flurazepam (Dalmane) [40 - 250 hours] 15 - 30 mg Hypnotic
Halazepam (Paxipam) [30 - 100 hours] 20 mg Anxiolytic
Ketazolam (Anseren) 30 - 100 hours [36 - 200 hours] 15 - 30 mg Anxiolytic
Loprazolam (Dormonoct) 6 - 12 hours 1 - 2 mg Hypnotic
Lorazepam (Ativan) 10 - 20 hours 1 mg Anxiolytic
Lormetazepam (Noctamid) 10 - 12 hours 1 - 2 mg Hypnotic
Midazolam (Dormicum) 1.6 - 8.3 hours 10mg Hypnotic
Medazepam (Nobrium) 36 - 200 hours 10 mg Anxiolytic
Nitrazepam (Mogadon) 15 - 38 hours 10 mg Hypnotic
Nordazepam (Nordaz) 36 - 200 hours 10 mg Anxiolytic
Oxazepam (Serax) 4 - 15 hours 20 mg Anxiolytic
Phenazepam 60 hours ~1 mg. Hypnotic
Prazepam (Centrax) [36 - 200 hours] 10 - 20 mg Anxiolytic
Pyrazolam Short .83 mg Anxiolytic
Quazepam (Doral) 25 - 100 hours 20 mg Hypnotic
Temazepam (Restoril) 8 - 22 hours 20 mg Hypnotic
Triazolam (Halcion) 2 hours 0.5 mg Hypnotic
Non-benzodiazepines commonly referred to as Z-drugs
Chemical name (brand name) Half-Life [Active Metabolites] Dose Equiv. of 10mg Diazepam (Oral) Class
Zaleplon (Sonata) 2 hours 20 mg Hypnotic
Zolpidem (Ambien) 2 hours 20 mg Hypnotic
Zopiclone (Imovane) 5 - 6 hours 15 mg Hypnotic
Eszopiclone (Lunesta) 6 hours 3 mg Hypnotic

Effects

Positive

  • Anti-Anxiety
  • Sedative
  • Muscle relaxant

Negative

  • High addiction potential
  • Withdrawals can be fatal
  • Risk of blackout
  • Inability to drink
  • Inability to drive
  • Loss of balance
  • Memory Loss
  • Procrastination
  • "Hangover"
  • Long-term effects
  • High addiction potential

Harm Reduction

  • Avoid driving and operating machinery
  • Recommended time (pauses) between using the substance
  • Addiction potential - High
  • Risk of blackouts
  • Risk of death when mixed with alcohol or other drugs. An extremely high percentage of drug-related deaths are due to mixing benzos with other drugs, especially opiates and alcohol.
  • Mental illness
  • Heart issues
  • CNSCentral Nervous System depressant when mixed with other drugs

Research Chemicals

The main danger of the drugs in this class is the risk of blacking out or overdosing by mixing it with other CNSCentral Nervous System depressants.

Most of the research chemicals from this class are usually active under 10mg's. The best course of action with these substances is putting X amount of active chemical into X amount of your solvent of choice (Such as Propylene-Glycol or Ethanol) And using an oral syringe to get the dose you want. Granted a fair amount are sold are either in presses or on a blotter.

See the Research Chemicals page for more information.

Chemistry and Pharmacology

The term benzodiazepine is the chemical name for the heterocyclic ring system, which is a fusion between the benzene and diazepine ring systems. Under Hantzsch–Widman nomenclature, a diazepine is a heterocycle with two nitrogen atoms, five carbon atom and the maximum possible number of cumulative double bonds. The "benzo" prefix indicates the benzene ring fused onto the diazepine ring. Benzodiazepine drugs are substituted 1,4-benzodiazepines, although the chemical term can refer to many other compounds that do not have useful pharmacological properties. Different benzodiazepine drugs have different side groups attached to this central structure. The different side groups affect the binding of the molecule to the GABAA receptor and so modulate the pharmacological properties. Many of the pharmacologically active "classical" benzodiazepine drugs contain the 5-phenyl-1H-benzo[e][1,4]diazepin-2(3H)-one substructure. Nonbenzodiazepines also bind to the benzodiazepine binding site on the GABAGamma aminobutyric acid an amino acid that is found in the central nervous system; acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter.(A) receptor and possess similar pharmacological properties. While the nonbenzodiazepines are by definition structurally unrelated to the benzodiazepines, both classes of drugs possess a common pharmacophore, which explains their binding to a common receptor site

Benzo.png


  • 2-keto compounds:
Chlordiazepoxide, Clorazepate, Diazepam, Flurazepam, Halazepam, Prazepam, and others.
  • 3-hydroxy compounds:
Lorazepam, Lormetazepam,Oxazepam, Temazepam
  • 7-nitro compounds:
Clonazepam, Flunitrazepam, Nimetazepam, Nitrazepam
  • Triazolo compounds:
Adinazolam, Alprazolam, Clonazolam, Estazolam, Triazolam
  • Imidazo compounds
Climazolam, Loprazolam, Midazolam

Images

Links

http://www.dr-bob.org/tips/bzd.html

History of Etizolam on Tripsit.me

Sources

Madsen U, Bräuner-Osborne H, Greenwood JR, Johansen TN, Krogsgaard-Larsen P, Liljefors T, Nielsen M, Frølund B (2005). "GABAGamma aminobutyric acid an amino acid that is found in the central nervous system; acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. and Glutamate receptor ligands and their therapeutic potential in CNSCentral Nervous System disorders". In Gad SC. Drug Discovery Handbook. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley-Interscience/J. Wiley. pp. 797–907. ISBN 0-471-21384-5. ^ a b Panico, R.; Powell, W. H.; Richer, J. C., eds. (1993). A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds. IUPAC/Blackwell Science. pp. 40–3. ISBN 0-632-03488-2.; Moss GP (1998). "Nomenclature of fused and bridged fused ring systems (IUPAC Recommendations 1998)". Pure Appl Chem 70 (1): 143–216. doi:10.1351/pac199870010143. Olsen RW, Betz H (2006). "GABAGamma aminobutyric acid an amino acid that is found in the central nervous system; acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. and glycine". In Siegel GJ, Albers RW, Brady S, Price DD (eds.). Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects (7th ed.). Elsevier. pp. 291–302. ISBN 0-12-088397-X. Shorter E (2005). "Benzodiazepines". A Historical Dictionary of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press. pp. 41–2. ISBN 0-19-517668-5. Zavala F (1997). "Benzodiazepines, anxiety and immunity". Pharmacol Ther 75 (3): 199–216. doi:10.1016/S0163-7258(97)00055-7. PMID 9504140. Narimatsu E, Niiya T, Kawamata M, Namiki A (2006). "[The mechanisms of depression by benzodiazepines, barbiturates and propofol of excitatory synaptic transmissions mediated by adenosine neuromodulation]". Masui (in Japanese) 55 (6): 684–91. PMID 16780077. Juergens, MD, Steven M. "Understanding Benzodiazepines". California Society of Addiction Medicine. Retrieved 25 April 2012. Carlo, Pia; Renata Finollo, Anna Ledda, Giovanni Brambilla (January 1989). "Absence of liver DNA fragmentation in rats treated with high oral doses of 32 benzodiazepine drugs". Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 12 (1): 34–41. doi:10.1016/0272-0590(89)90059-6. PMID 2925017.

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