r3-phenethylamines, PEAs, 2-phenethylamines
r3-phenethylamines are derivatives of phenethylaminePhenethylamine (PEA) is a natural monoamine alkaloid, trace amine, and psychoactive drug with stimulant effects. In the mammalian central nervous system, phenethylamine is believed to function as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter.
(Shulgin 1979). The biogenic 2-phenethylaminePhenethylamine (PEA) is a natural monoamine alkaloid, trace amine, and psychoactive drug with stimulant effects. In the mammalian central nervous system, phenethylamine is believed to function as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter.
(PEA) dilates the blood vessels in the brain
and consequently can, under certain circumstances,
cause headaches or migraines (cf. Theobroma
cacao). The most well-known psychoactive r3phenethylamine
is mescaline, a component of
Many cacti (including Gymnocactus Spp.490 and
Opuntia spp.) contain phenethylamines that are
structurally very similar to mescaline but whose
effects are practically unknown (West et al. 1974).
It is quite possible that such substances as candicine
(Trichocereus spp.), hordenine (Ariocarpus
spp., Opuntia clavata Eng.; cf. Meyer et al. 1980
and· Vanderveen et al. 1974), and macromerine
(Coryphantha spp.) produce psychoactive effects
when used at the appropriate dosages. This area
still offers many opportunities for experimental
human pharmacology (Heffter technique). Such
experimentation could, for example, lead to a
psychoactive use of the South American Notocactus
ottonis (Lehm.) Berg. [syn. Parodia ottonis]
(cf. Hecht 1995,82), a cactus that is often found at
places where cacti are sold, is very easy to grow,
and contains hordenine (Shulgin 1995, 16*). The
genus Lobivia also contains hordenine (Follas et al.
Hordenine and related substances (occasionally
in high concentrations) are also found in other
plants, such as the Himalayan Leguminosae Desmodium tiliaefolium G. Don (Ghosal and
Numerous phenethylamines that have psychoactive
effects (both empathogenic and/or psychedelic)
have been synthesized (e.g., MDMA, MDA,
MMDA, MDE, 2-CB, et cetera; cf. Shulgin andShulgin 1991*).
See also the entries for mescaline.
Pallas, W. D., J. M. Cassidy, and J. 1. McLaughlin.
1977. l3-phenethylamines from the cactus genus
Lobivia. Phytochemistry 16:1459-60.
Ghosal, S., and R. S. Srivastava. 1973.I3-phenethylaminePhenethylamine (PEA) is a natural monoamine alkaloid, trace amine, and psychoactive drug with stimulant effects. In the mammalian central nervous system, phenethylamine is believed to function as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter.,
tetrahydroisoquinoline and indole
alkaloids of Desmodium tilaefolium.
Meyer, Brian N., Yehia A. H. Mohamed, and Jerry 1.
McLaughlin. 1980. J3-phenethylamines from the
cactus genus Opuntia. Phytochemistry 19:719-20.
Shulgin, Alexander T. 1979. Chemistry of
phenethylamines related to mescaline. Journal of
Psychedelic Drugs 11 (1-2): 41-52.
Vanderveen, Randall 1., Leslie C. West, and Jerry 1.
McLaughlin. 1974. N-methyltryramine from
Opuntia clavata. Phytochemistry13:866-67.
West, Leslie G., Randell 1. Vanderveen, and Jerry 1.
McLaughlin. 1974. l3-phenethylamines from thegenus Gymnocactus. Phytochemistry 3:665-66.