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Ocimum guatemalense Gandoger
In Amazonia, where this plant is known as albahaca,
iroro, pichana albaca, or pichana blanca, it is
said that this basil species is hallucinogenic (Duke
and Vasquez 1994*). The leaves are used as an
ayahuasca additive. The herbage has ethnomedicinal
use as an analgesic in Mexico and
Guatemala (Alcorn 1984, 715*; Ott 1993, 416*).
The plant is known as xkakaltun in the Yucatan,
where it is regarded as a honey plant (Barrera M.
et al. 1976, 263*) and is used in an abortifacient
medicine (R~itsch and Probst 1983). The Siona
Indians call the aromatic plant gana ma'nya,
"chicha perfume:' and it is sin1ilarly known as
kana na'nya among the Secoya (Vickers and
Plowman 1984, 16*). It apparently was once used
as a chicha additive. In Brazil, where the plant is
known as mangericao, it is used in the Candomble
cult as an ingredient in the initiatory drink (see
madzoka medicine). It has folk medicinal significance
in the Caribbean. The plant contains an
essential oil (Wong 1976, 137*) whose constituents
include camphene, cineol, linalool, myrcene,
cis-trans-ocimene, a-pinene, fj-pinene, a-terpineol,
aromandrene, fj-caryophyllene, fj-elemene, L\-elemene,
')'-elemene, a-humulene, neriol, and eugenol
(Argueta V. et al. 1994,89*; Maia et al. 1988).
Sacred basil (Ocimum sanctum 1. [syn. Ocimum
tenuiflorum 1.]), a relative that is better known by
the names tulasi, tulsi, and madura-tala (Knecht
1985), is not itself psychoactive,334 although it is
chewed as a substitute for betel quids (Macmillan1991,424*).
Knecht, Sigrid. 1985. Die heilige Heilpflanze Tulasi.
In "Ethnobotanik," special issue, Curare
Maia, J. G. S., et al. 1988. Uncommon Brazilian
essential oils of the Labiatae and Compositae.
Dev. Food Science 18:177-88.
Ratsch, Christian, and Heinz J. Probst. 1983. Krauter
zur Familienplanung. Sexualmedizin 12 (4):173-76.