General information

Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, such as anxiety disorders, OCD, and various neurological disorders. To establish efficacy, an antidepressant must show that it can produce a therapeutic effect for the condition for which it is taken. An antidepressant should be determined to be more efficacious than placebo to justify the risk associated with side effects.

Common Antidepressants

SSRIs

These drugs inhibit the reuptake of serotoninA monoamine neurotransmitter, biochemically derived from tryptophan, that is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being.. This increases the amount of extra cellular serotoninA monoamine neurotransmitter, biochemically derived from tryptophan, that is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being. leading to a larger response on 5-HT receptors.

SNRIs

These drugs inhibit the reuptake of both serotoninA monoamine neurotransmitter, biochemically derived from tryptophan, that is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being. and norepinephrine.

SARIs

These act by antagonizing serotoninA monoamine neurotransmitter, biochemically derived from tryptophan, that is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being. receptors such as 5-HT2A and inhibiting the reuptake of serotoninA monoamine neurotransmitter, biochemically derived from tryptophan, that is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being., norepinephrine, and/or dopamineA neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention, learning, and the brain’s pleasure and reward system..

  • Etoperidone (Axiomin, Centren, Depracer, Etonin, Etoran, Staff, Tropene)

NDRIs

Inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamineA neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention, learning, and the brain’s pleasure and reward system..

MAOIs

Inhibit monoamine oxidase, a chemical in the brain and stomach that breaks down monoamines. Monoamine is a chemical used in cellular respiration to seperate an amine group of a molecule to allow easier uptake.

There are many types of MAOIs, reversable indicates monoamine oxidase is inhibited for a brief time, irreversable MAOIs typically inhibit monoamine oxidase for about 2 weeks.

Selective MAOIs only inhibit either MAOIMonoamine oxidase inhibitor are drugs that inhibit the action of monoamine oxidase in the brain and so allow monoamines to accumulate.-A or MAOMonoamine Oxidase, an enzyme that catalyses the metabolism of many drugs (e.g., DMT, dopamine and serotonin).-B (See note for MAOMonoamine Oxidase, an enzyme that catalyses the metabolism of many drugs (e.g., DMT, dopamine and serotonin).-B selective inhibation below) these are considered "safer" than nonselective MAOIs as small amounts of tyranmine can still be processed, avoiding the "Cheese Effect" commonly associated with consumption of tyranmine rich foods while monoamine oxidase is inhibitted.

  • Selective
    • MAOMonoamine Oxidase, an enzyme that catalyses the metabolism of many drugs (e.g., DMT, dopamine and serotonin).-A
    • MAOMonoamine Oxidase, an enzyme that catalyses the metabolism of many drugs (e.g., DMT, dopamine and serotonin).-B (MAOMonoamine Oxidase, an enzyme that catalyses the metabolism of many drugs (e.g., DMT, dopamine and serotonin).-B inhibitors are not sterically hindered from binding to MAOMonoamine Oxidase, an enzyme that catalyses the metabolism of many drugs (e.g., DMT, dopamine and serotonin). A and are therefore less selective than MAOMonoamine Oxidase, an enzyme that catalyses the metabolism of many drugs (e.g., DMT, dopamine and serotonin). A inhibitors)
  • nonselective and irreversable

TCAs

TeCAs

NMDAN-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. NMDA antagonists are often dissociatives. antagonists

Dissociatives such as Ketamine, PCP, MXE or Diphenidine produce a afterglow that lasts 1-2 weeks and has a strong antidepressant effect.

Others

History

Before the dawn of modern antidepressant research and specialized production, opioids, amphetamines, and methamphetamine were commonly used as antidepressants.

Pharmecutical antidepressants were first discovered accidentally in the 1950s, while research was being undertaken into finding effective treatments for schizophrenia. The first major class of antidepressants available on the market were tricyclics, with MAOIs following around a decade later. While relatively effective in treating patients, there were concerns about the toxicity, side-effects and risks of overdose with these classes of drugs, and they were therefore followed later by the development and release of SSRIs in the late 80s and early 90s, which target serotoninA monoamine neurotransmitter, biochemically derived from tryptophan, that is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being. directly.

SSRIs remain in widespread use today accross the world, and since then SNRIs were also developed (combining the receptor actions of tricyclics and SSRIs, without suffering from the previous worries of toxicity etc) and have similarly seen widespread adoption and have been shown in some cases to yield a higher success rate.

More recently, research has gone into alternative means of treating depression. For example, particular inroads have been made studying the anti-depressant effects of dissociative chemicals.

Also in use are natural remedies such as St John's Wort, which is largely understood to have a similar mechanism of action and efficiency rate to SSRIs, with less side effects.

Effects

Positive

  • Relief of anxiety
  • Decrease in suicidal thoughts
  • Improves general quality of life
  • Improvements in mood

Adverse

  • Depending on underlying illness may cause mania or increased suicidal thoughts
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Loss of appetite
  • Hypertension
  • Sleep Disturbances
  • Withdrawal
  • Dietary restrictions (For MAOIs)

Harm Reduction

Drugs that inhibit the reuptake of serotoninA monoamine neurotransmitter, biochemically derived from tryptophan, that is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being. tend to dull or cancel the effects of many recreational drugs, while mixing other antidepressants such as MAOIs with certain drugs may be fatal. See the Drug Combinations for more information.

Extreme caution should be taken when using MAOIs, due to their mechanism of action. Eating certain foods containing tryamine can cause *fatal* complications.

Antidepressants cannot be used recreationally.

Do not combine any antidepressants with any medications containing Dextromethorphan (DXM). This can lead to serotoninA monoamine neurotransmitter, biochemically derived from tryptophan, that is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being. syndrome which can be a fatal condition.

Links

Wikipedia

Erowid

/r/Drugs FAQ

Bluelight

DMT-Nexus

Wikipedia - Bupropion

Erowid - Bupropion

Wikipedia - Peganum harmala

Erowid - Peganum harmala

Wikipedia - Citalopram

Erowid - Citalopram

Wikipedia - Fluoxetine

Erowid - Fluoxetine

Wikipedia - Escitalopram

Erowid - Escitalopram

Wikipedia - Sertraline

Erowid - Sertraline

Wikipedia - MAOI

Erowid - MAOI

Wikipedia - Amitriptyline

Erowid - Amitriptyline

Wikipedia - TCA

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