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[[File:Mescaline.jpg|thumb|200px|left|Mescaline vial and powder]]
  
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'''Mescaline''' is a [[Psychedelics|psychedelic]] phenethylamine derived from several ancient species of cactus, which have been used ritualistically for thousands of years. It continues to be used for spiritual, religious and recreational purposes today.
  
<tr>
+
== History ==
<td valign="top" width="50%"><strong>Other Names</strong>
+
  
Mescalin, meskalin, mezcalin, mezkalin, 3,4,5-trimethoxy-
+
Mescaline is thought to be one of the oldest psychedelics used by humans, evidence suggesting Native Americans in Mexico consumed it ceremonially over 5700 years ago. However, it wasn't until 1919 that it was first synthesised by Ernst Spath. Eight years later, an extensive study of mescaline's effects was published in 'Der Meskalunraush', meaning 'The Mescaline High.' Then, in 1952 Dr. Humphry Osmond began working with psychedelics at the Weyburn Mental Hospital in Saskatchewan, Canada. Dr. Osmond was studying the similarities between Mescaline and the adrenaline molecule.
  
benzolmethanamine, 3,4,S-trimethoxyf3-
+
The following year, in 1953, Aldous Huxley consumed 400mg of mescaline under Dr. Osmond's direct supervision, recounting and publishing his first experience in the book The Doors of Perception in 1954. The Doors of Perception went on to catch the attention of many prominent psychedelic researchers and became one of the most referenced pieces of literature in the psychedelic community. The psychedelic rock band The Doors took its name from the title of the book.
 +
Among the many researchers who took notice of Huxley's work was Alexander Shulgin, who went on to test mescaline on himself in 1960 at a 350mg dose. This experience sparked an interest in phenethylamines that persisted for the rest of his career as a chemist.[https://www.erowid.org/library/books_online/shulgin_labbooks/  Detailed in Shulgin's Lab Notebook #4 on page 471].
  
phenethylamine, 3,4,5-trimethoxyethyl- phenylamine,
+
In 1961, Shulgin proposed the 'mescaline unit' (ED mescaline divided by ED analogue) as a measure of relative potency of mescaline analogues. In this calculation, the effective dose represents the average of ED1 and ED100 (ED50 or 'median effective dose'). The 'mescaline-unit' (M.U.) was used in studies of many psychoactive compounds by many prominent chemical researchers, including the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. However, it is no longer used.
  
TMPFA, 2-(3,4,S-trimethoxy-phenyl)ethylamine
+
On October 27 of 1970, the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act was passed in the USA. Part II of this is the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), which defines a scheduling system for drugs. Under this act, mescaline, along with LSD, psilocybin, psilocin, peyote, cannabis and MDA were all listed under Schedule I.
 +
In 1991, Alexander and Ann Shulgin first published their book called [https://www.erowid.org/library/books_online/pihkal/pihkal.shtml Phenethylamines I Have Known and Loved], a collection of years' worth of work documenting in detail the synthesis and subjective effects of over 250 phenethylamines, including mescaline. This book is now widely considered to be one of the single most important pieces of literature in the history of psychedelic pharmacology and chemistry. However, because it provided detailed information on the synthesis of hundreds of drugs, the book also led to their widespread clandestine production and distribution in the years following its release.
  
Empirical formula: CllH17N03
+
== Usage ==
  
Substance type: lophophora alkaloid, f3-phenethylamine
+
The drinking of teas made from mescaline containing cacti is one of the oldest known instances of psychedelic drug use. Europeans noted the use of peyote in Native American religious ceremonies upon early contact, notably by the Huichols in Mexico. Other mescaline-containing cacti such as the San Pedro have a long history of use in South America, from Peru to Ecuador.
  
Mescaline was first isolated in 1886 from "mescal
+
Mescaline was used by Native American cultures for spiritual purposes and usually were either consumed dried or in a tea. Nausea and vomiting associated with consuming the cactus itself were thought to be an inherent as well as important part of the experience. It was considered to have a cleansing effect on the mind and body.
  
buttons;' the aboveground parts of the peyote
+
In the 60s, mescaline along with [[LSD]] and several other psychedelics were researched for the treatment of select mental illnesses, notably alcoholism and depression.
 +
In modern times, mescaline continues to be used recreationally - though is somewhat more uncommon than other psychedelics such as the [[2C-X]] series, which are very similar in effects, presumably due to its relatively low potency and difficulty in production.
  
cactus (Lophophora williamsii), and was named
+
== Dosage ==
  
after them. Mescaline is the most thoroughly
+
{{#tdose: mescaline }}
  
studied of all psychoactive plant constituents. In
+
== Duration ==
  
the period between 1886 and 1950, more than one
+
Note: Duration can be significantly longer with higher doses. Onset can vary, Avoid redosing.
  
hundred mescaline research studies were published
+
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|+ Oral
 +
| Onset ||60-180+ Minutes
 +
|-
 +
| Duration ||6-12 Hours
 +
|-
 +
| After Effects || 3-5 Hours
 +
|-
 +
| Total ||10-20 Hours
 +
|}
  
in the German language alone (Passie
+
== Effects ==
 +
Mescaline HCl is the only form of mescaline which can be vaporized, producing a much faster onset and shorter duration of effects.
  
1994). This alkaloid was found to be a component
+
Note: The prevalence of negative effects increases with higher doses.  
  
of numerous cacti (see the table on page 847). And
+
=== Positive ===
 +
* Feelings of interconnectedness
 +
* Spiritual events
 +
* Euphoria
 +
* Increased sensitivity to touch
 +
* Increased sense of smell
 +
* Music enhancement
 +
* Increased persistence of vision
  
it is possible that mescaline is produced from
+
=== Neutral ===
  
dopamine in vitro (Paul et al. 1969; Rosenberg et
+
* Altered thinking processes
 +
* An altered sense of time and self-awareness
 +
* Closed and open-eye visual phenomena
 +
* Synesthesia (especially in conjunction with music)
 +
* Peripheral stimulation
 +
* Increased cardiovascular activity
 +
* Increased Perspiration
  
al. 1969).
+
=== Negative ===
  
Arthur Heffter was the first person to initially
+
* Nausea
 +
* Vomiting
 +
* Unwanted spiritual experiences
 +
* Tension
 +
* Anxiety
 +
* Intense feelings of dread and doom
  
test an isolated plant constituent on himself (Heffter
+
(Note: Nausea and vomiting are extremely common with mescaline, particularly when consumed in the form of a cactus tea. Simple A/B extraction techniques can be applied to mescaline containing cacti. Both the literature and anecdotal evidence suggest that nausea is less common with the pure salts of mescaline.)
  
1894). The classic Heffter dosage consisted of 150
+
== Harm Reduction ==
  
mg mescaline hydrochloride (HCL). A psychedelic
+
As with all psychedelic drugs, mescaline carries within it the potential for a very powerful experience, and as such has the potential to result in a very difficult experience ('bad' trip). Mindset and setting play important roles in governing the nature of a psychedelic experience, among other things.
  
dosage is now considered to be 178 to 256 mg of
+
See [[Psychedelics#Harm_Reduction|Psychedelic Harm Reduction]] and [[How To Deal With A Bad Trip]] for more information.
  
mescaline HCL or 200 to 400 mg of mescaline
+
=== Interactions ===
 +
Due to the illicit nature of mescaline, little empirical data is available regarding its interaction profile. It can be generally stated that mescaline potentiates the effects of stimulants including serotonergic, dopaminergic, and adrenergic. Care must be taken to reduce (by 80% or more) the amount of any stimulant taken in combination with Mescaline.
  
sulfate. The highest measured dosage reported in
+
Its pharmacology is fairly well understood and based on this it would not be advisable to mix mescaline with irreversible MAOIs and/or lithium. It is advisable to exercise extreme caution when combining any substances lacking well-established interaction profiles.
  
the literature was 1,500 mg. Taken orally,S mg/kg
+
There are a significant amount of anecdotal reports that involve mixing mescaline with reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (RIMAs) both as extracted salts and ayahuasca style brews from harmaline/harmine containing plants. Caution is advised if one intends to attempt this. It can result in a significant alteration of the intensity and character of a mescaline trip. Note: Tyramine is a biosynthetic precursor of mescaline in some species of mescaline containing cacti. Harmful interactions between tyramine and irreversible MAOIs (such as isocarboxazid) are well established in medical literature so combining mescaline with this particular class of MAOI is strongly discouraged.
  
of pure mescaline is regarded as a hallucinogenic
+
Mescaline itself is oxidatively metabolized primarily by the enzyme SSAO (semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase). This enzyme can be inhibited directly with the hydrolysable tannins present in cranesbill root. Glucosamine is also a weak inhibitor of SSAO. Little information exists about potentiation of mescaline with SSAO inhibitors. It is not typical to do this because of the already long duration and because more mescaline is excreted unchanged in urine than is metabolized oxidatively by this enzyme.
  
dosage. In the toxicological literature, there is no
+
Mescaline shares the anabolic path of serotonin and is able to form analogous metabolites.
  
known lethal dosage of mescaline when it is
+
See the [[Drug combinations]] chart for more information.
  
ingested orally (Brown and Malone 1978, 14).
+
== Chemistry and Pharmacology ==
  
Western psychiatry has been aware of
+
=== Chemistry ===
  
consciousness-altering drugs since the nineteenth
+
3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzeneethanamine (also referred to as 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) or mescaline freebase, is a white crystalline odourless solid at room temperature. Its chemical formula is C11H17NO3 and it is soluble in alcohol, chloroform, benzene, xylene, toluene, acetone, dichloromethane, highly soluble in isopropyl alcohol, soluble in d-limonene and moderately soluble in water. It is practically insoluble in ether or petroleum ether and has melting/boiling points of 35-36°C and 180°C (12 mmHg) respectively. The freebase has a molecular weight of 211.26.
  
century. Mescaline was the first substance to be
+
Note: Mescaline freebase will form mescaline carbonate upon prolonged exposure to air.
  
tested and applied in psychiatry. At the time,
+
The hydrochloric salt of mescaline is the most common form by far. It has a melting point of 184° C according to the Merck Index. It has the appearance of needle-like clear/whitish crystals and is moderately soluble in water, alcohol, methanol. (at least 1.0 mg/ml) (Merck Index) In contrast to the freebase, it is practically insoluble in toluene and acetone, insoluble in isopropyl alcohol, diethyl ether, and d-limonene. The hydrochloric salt has a molecular weight of 247.72.
 +
The second most common salt of mescaline seems to be the sulfate dihydrate. It also appears as a whitish crystalline solid, retaining the whitish colour albeit somewhat brighter, but losing the needle-like structure in favour of a more rock-like appearance. It is soluble in hot water, methanol and insoluble in near-freezing water, alcohol and acetone. The sulphate has a melting point of 183–186 °C and a molecular weight of 309.33606.
  
researchers regarded the effects of mescaline on a healthy subject as inducing a state that was otherwise
+
Many salts of mescaline are attainable and all have different physical properties and solubility profiles. Here we cover the two most commonly explored salts. For some more information on the salts not covered here, check out the links section at the bottom of the page.
  
known only in psychopathic patients. This
+
=== Pharmacology ===
  
led to the idea of pharmacologically induced
+
Mescaline shares structural similarities with Serotonin and Dopamine. Mescaline acts similarly to other psychedelics by binding to and activating the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor with low affinity and high efficacy. Mescaline is also known to bind to and activate the serotonin 5-HT2C receptor.
 +
Tolerance builds with repeated usage, lasting for a few days. Mescaline causes cross-tolerance with other serotonergic psychedelics such as LSD, psilocin and 2C-x compounds.
  
"model psychoses" (Leuner 1962*). The effects of
+
Some studies have concluded that mescaline goes through the body nearly unchanged. Six hours after dosing half of dose has been excreted and of between 20% and 50% of it is unchanged. The rest is the carboxylic acid, most likely degraded by MAO.
  
mescaline (and also of psilocybin) were described
+
=== LD50 ===
  
as "intoxication, toxic ecstasy, clouding of consciousness,
+
The LD50 is unknown in humans. In experiments with rats, the LD50 for mescaline has been established in the range of 800-1200mg/kg orally. [https://www.erowid.org/chemicals/mescaline/mescaline_datasheet1.shtml See Mescaline MSDS via hazard.com]
 +
Considering the human dose range is about 100-1000mg, it would be very difficult to consume enough Mescaline to kill a human. As such, there are no recorded human deaths from the ingestion of mescaline. With that said, caution is still advised when consuming high doses.
  
hallucinosis, model psychosis, drug
+
== Legal status ==
  
intoxication, emphasis, daydream;' et cetera
+
* In Australia, the peyote cacti and other mescaline-containing plants such as San Pedro are illegal in Western Australia, Queensland and the Northern Territory, whilst in other states such as Victoria and New South Wales, they are legal for ornamental and gardening purposes.
 +
* In Canada, The Netherlands, and Germany, mescaline in raw form and dried mescaline-containing cacti are considered an illegal drug, however, anyone may grow and use peyote, or Lophophora williamsii, along with Echinopsis Panchanoi and Echinopsis Peruviana without restriction, as it is specifically exempt from the legislation. In Canada, mescaline is classified as a schedule III drug under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, whereas peyote is exempt.
 +
* In the United Kingdom, mescaline in purified powder form is a Class A drug, however, dried cactus can be bought and sold legally.
 +
* In the United States, mescaline was made illegal in 1970 by the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. The drug was prohibited internationally by the * 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances and is categorized as a Schedule I 'hallucinogen' by the CSA. Mescaline is legal only for certain groups (such as the Native American Church) and in scientific and medical research. The current state of the law is that while the federal government may not restrict the use of peyote in ceremony, individual states do have a right to restrict its use/ Many states, including Utah, have legalized peyote usage with 'sincere religious intent', or within a religious organization regardless of race.
  
(Passie 1994). Only in recent years has there been a
+
== Links ==
  
shift in thinking away from the model psychosis
+
* [https://www.erowid.org/chemicals/mescaline/mescaline_journal7.shtml Mescaline: The Chemistry and Pharmacology of its Analogs]
 +
* [https://www.erowid.org/library/books_online/shulgin_labbooks/ Dr. Shulgin's Lab Notes]
 +
* [https://www.erowid.org/library/books_online/pihkal/pihkal096.shtml PiHKAL Entry]
 +
* [https://www.erowid.org/chemicals/mescaline/ Erowid Entry]
 +
* [https://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mescaline Wikipedia Entry]
 +
* [http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/33868/0000129.pdf?sequence=1 'Relationship of the Structure of Mescaline and Seven Analogs to Toxicity and Behavior of Five Species of Laboratory Animals' (full text)]
 +
* [https://wiki.dmt-nexus.me/Psychedelic_Compounds_Chemical_and_Physical_Properties#Freebase_Mescaline Physical and Chemical Properties of Various Mescaline Salts]
  
concept and a recognition that psychedelic states
 
  
and psychoses do not have a common origin
+
[[Category:Stimulant]]
 
+
[[Category:Psychedelic]]
(HermIe et al. 1988*, 1992*, 1993*).
+
[[Category:Drugs]]
 
+
The predominant effects of mescaline are a
+
 
+
"reveling of the individual senses and primarily
+
 
+
visual orgies" (Ellis 1971, 21). The mescaline
+
 
+
inebriation was first systematically described by
+
 
+
Kurt Beringer in 1927. To date, there have been
+
 
+
many encounters with the substance, and the most
+
 
+
commonly reported experiences are ecstatic and
+
 
+
visionary in nature:
+
 
+
My awareness of subject and object
+
 
+
disappeared, and I felt dissolved, rising in an
+
 
+
orchestra of sounds. This ecstatic state was
+
 
+
accompanied by an indescribable sensation of
+
 
+
happiness. (Ammon and Gotte 1971,32)
+
 
+
It has often been suggested that pure mescaline
+
 
+
can be taken in place of Lophophora williamsii.
+
 
+
"However, most peyote users are of the opinion
+
 
+
that synthetic mescaline cannot be compared with
+
 
+
the effects of peyote" (Harp 1996, 16).
+
 
+
<strong>On the Cultural History of Mescaline</strong>
+
 
+
Aldous Huxley (1894-1963) made the psychedelic
+
 
+
effects of mescaline famous in his two essays "The
+
 
+
Doors of Perception" and "Heaven and Hell:'
+
 
+
Usually the person taking mescaline will
+
 
+
discover an inner world that is so obviously
+
 
+
something given, so enlighteningly eternal
+
 
+
and sacred, as the transformed outer world
+
 
+
that I had perceived with my eyes open.
+
 
+
(Huxley 1970,32*)
+
 
+
It is very likely that Hermann Hesse also had
+
 
+
contact with mescaline, and that it may have
+
 
+
inspired his novel SteppenwolJ, one of the cult
+
 
+
books of the hippie generation. The psychedelic
+
 
+
rock band Steppenwolf took its name from the
+
 
+
book, and the novel also became a motion picture
+
 
+
starring Max von Sydow (USA 1974).
+
 
+
Nationalgalerie, a German New Wave band,
+
 
+
sings on its album Mescaline, "To be transformed by a trickster fairy. My lawyer advised me to take
+
 
+
some mescaline" (Sony Records, 1995).
+
 
+
The French novelist and artist Henri Michaux
+
 
+
(1899-1984) studied mescaline during the 1960s
+
 
+
and ingested it to see what effects it might have
+
 
+
upon his creativity. Like many other FrenchJmen,
+
 
+
however, he summarized his experience as an
+
 
+
"accursed miracle" and scribbled his experiences of inner turmoil on paper (Michaux 1986). Today,
+
 
+
these "drawings" are still reproduced in publications
+
 
+
as an example of the "psychosis-like"
+
 
+
effects of mescaline.
+
 
+
&nbsp;</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="53%"><strong>Cacti Containing Mescaline</strong>
+
 
+
(from Doetsch et al. 1980; La Barre 1979; Mata and McLaughlin 1982*; Shulgin 1995*; Lundstrom
+
 
+
1971; Pardanini et al. 1978; Ott 1993*; Turner and Heyman 1960)
+
<table style="font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 9pt;" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0">
+
 
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><strong>Species</strong></td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><strong>Occurrence</strong></td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><strong>Use</strong></td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Gymnocalycium gibbosum </em>(Haw.) Pfeiffer</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Argentina</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Gymnocalycium leeanum </em>(Hook.) Br. et R.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Argentina, Uruguay</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Islaya minor </em>Backeb.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">southern Peru</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Lophophora diffusa </em>(Croizat) Bravo</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Mexico</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">peyote substitute</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">[syn. <em>Lophophora echinata]</em></td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Lophophora jourdaniana </em>[nom. nud.]</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Lophophora williamsii </em>(Lem.) Coult.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Mexico</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">entheogen</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">[syn. <em>Lophophora fricii </em>Habermann]</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Myrtillocactus geometrizans </em>(Mart.) Cons.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Mexico</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Opuntia acanthocarpa </em>Engelm. et Bigel.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Opuntia basilaria </em>Engelm. et Bigel.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Opuntia cylindrica </em>(Lam.) S.-D.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Chile</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">inebriant502</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Opuntia echinocarpa </em>Engelm. et Bigel.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Opuntia ficus-indica </em>(L.) Mill.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Mexico, Egypt503</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">food</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Opuntia imbricata </em>(Haw.) DC.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Arizona</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Opuntia spinosior </em>(Engelm.) Tourney</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Arizona</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Pelecyphora aselliformis </em>Ehrenb.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Mexico</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">peyote substitute</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Pereskia corrugata </em>Cutak</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Florida</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Pereskia tampicana </em>Web.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Mexico</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Pereskiopsis scandens </em>Br. et R.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Yucatan</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Polaskia chende </em>(Gossel.) Gibs.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">California</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Polaskia </em>sp.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">California</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Pterocereus gaumeri </em>(Br. et R.) Mac-Doug. et Mir.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">California</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Pterocereus </em>sp.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">California</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Stenocereus beneckei </em>(Ehrenb.) Buxbaum</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">California</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Stenocereus eruca </em>(Brand.) Gibs. et Horak</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Baja California</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Stenocereus stellatus </em>(Pfeiffer) Rice</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">California</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Stenocereus treleasei </em>(Br. et R.) Backeb.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">California</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Stenocereus </em>sp.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Stetsonia coryne </em>(SD.) Br. et R.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Argentina</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus bridgesii </em>(SD.) Br. et R.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Peru, Bolivia</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">entheogen</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus cuscoensis </em>Br. et R.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Peru</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus fulvinanus </em>Ritt.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Chile</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus macrogonus </em>(SD.) Ricc.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Peru</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus pachanoi </em>Br. et R.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Peru, Ecuador</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">entheogen</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus peruvianus </em>Br. et R.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Peru</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">entheogen</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus spachianus </em>(Lem.) Rice.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Indiana (cultivated)</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus strigosus </em>(SD.) Br. et R.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Argentina</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus taquimbalensis </em>Card.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Peru</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus terscheckii </em>(Parm.) Br. et R.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Peru, northwestern</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus validus </em>(Monv.) Backbg.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Argentina</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus werdermannianus </em>Backbg.</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">Peru, Bolivia</td>
+
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
</table>
+
<strong>Commercial Forms and Regulations
+
 
+
</strong>Mescaline is available primarily as a hydrochloride
+
 
+
or sulfate. In Germany, it is considered a "narcotic in which trafficking is prohibited." In the United
+
 
+
States, the Controlled Substances Act lists mescaline
+
 
+
as a Schedule I substance (Korner 1994,38*).
+
 
+
<strong>
+
 
+
Literature</strong>
+
 
+
See also the entries for Lophophora williamsii,
+
 
+
Trichocereus pachanoi, Trichocereus spp., and ~phenethylamines.
+
 
+
Ammon, Gunter, and Jurgen Gotte. 1971. Ergebnisse
+
 
+
fruher Meskalin-Forschung. In
+
 
+
BewuBtseinserweiternde Drogen aus
+
 
+
psychoanalytischer Sicht, special issue,
+
 
+
Dynamische Psychiatrie, 23-45.
+
 
+
Beringer, Kurt. 1927. Der Meskalinrausch. Berlin:
+
 
+
Springer. Repr. 1969.
+
 
+
Blofeld, John. 1966. A high yogic experience achieved
+
 
+
with meskalin. Psychedelic Review 7:27-32.
+
 
+
Doetsch, P. W., J. M. Cassidy, and J. L. McLaughlin.
+
 
+
1980. Cactus alkaloids. XL: Identification of
+
 
+
mescaline and other phenethylamines in Pereskia,
+
 
+
Pereskiopsis and Islaya by use of fluorescamine
+
 
+
conjugates. Journal ofChromotography 189:79.
+
 
+
Ellis, Havelock. 1971. Zum Phanomen der MeskalinIntoxikation,
+
 
+
Bemerkungen zum Problem der
+
 
+
Meskalin-Intoxikation. In
+
 
+
BewuBtseinserweiternde Drogen aus
+
 
+
psychoanalytischer Sicht, special issue,
+
 
+
Dynamische Psychiatrie, 17-22.
+
 
+
Frederking, W. 1954. Meskalin in der Psychotherapie.
+
 
+
Medizinischer Monatsspiegel, 3:5-7.
+
 
+
Harf, Jurgen C. 1996. Meskalin und Peyote. Grow!
+
 
+
6/96: 15-16.
+
 
+
Heffter, Arthur. 1894. aber zwei Kakteenalkaloide.
+
 
+
Berichte der deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft
+
 
+
27:2975.
+
 
+
Kluver) Heinrich. 1926. Mescal vision and eidetic
+
 
+
vision. American Journal ofPsych0 logy 37:502-15.
+
 
+
---. 1969. Mescal and mechanisms of
+
 
+
hallucinations. Chicago: The University of
+
 
+
Chicago Press.
+
 
+
La Barre, Weston. 1979. Peyotl and mescaline.
+
 
+
Journal ofPsychedelic Drugs 11 (1-2): 33-39.
+
 
+
Lundstrom, Jan. 1971. Biosynthetic studies on
+
 
+
mescaline and related cactus alkaloids. Acta
+
 
+
Pharm. Suecica 8:275-302.
+
 
+
Michaux, Henri. 1986. Unseliges Wunder: Das
+
 
+
Meskalin. Munich and Vienna: Carl Hanser.
+
 
+
Pardanani, J. H., B. N. Meyer, and J. L. McLaughlin.
+
 
+
1978. Cactus alkaloids. XXXVII. Mescaline and
+
 
+
related compounds from Opuntia spinosior.
+
 
+
Lloydia 41 (3): 286-88.
+
 
+
Passie, Torsten. 1994. Ausrichtungen, Methoden und
+
 
+
Ergebnisse fruher Meskalinforschungen im
+
 
+
deutschsprachigen Raum (bis 1950). In Jahrbuch
+
 
+
des Europiiischen Collegiums fur
+
 
+
Bewufltseinsstudien (1993/1994), 103-11. Berlin:
+
 
+
VWB.
+
 
+
Paul., A.G., H. Rosenberg, and K. L. Khanna. 1969.
+
 
+
The roles of 3,4,5-trihydroxy-~-phenethylamine
+
 
+
and 3,4-dimethoxy-~-phenethylaminein their
+
 
+
biosynthesis of mescaline. Lloydia 32 (1): 36-39.
+
 
+
Rosenberg, H., K. L. Khanna, M. Takido, and A. G.
+
 
+
Paul. 1969. The biosynthesis of mescaline in
+
 
+
Lophophora williamsii. Lloydia 32 (3): 334-38.
+
 
+
Turner, W. J., and J. J. Heyman. 1960. The presence of
+
 
+
mescaline in Opuntia cylindrica. Journal of
+
 
+
Organic Chemistry 25:2250.
+
 
+
Wallraff, Gunter. 1968. Meskalin-Ein Selbstversuch.
+
 
+
Berlin: Verlag Peter-Paul Zahl.</td>
+
</tr>
+

Latest revision as of 14:41, 6 November 2017

Mescaline vial and powder

Mescaline is a psychedelic phenethylaminePhenethylamine (PEA) is a natural monoamine alkaloid, trace amine, and psychoactive drug with stimulant effects. In the mammalian central nervous system, phenethylamine is believed to function as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter. derived from several ancient species of cactus, which have been used ritualistically for thousands of years. It continues to be used for spiritual, religious and recreational purposes today.

History

Mescaline is thought to be one of the oldest psychedelics used by humans, evidence suggesting Native Americans in Mexico consumed it ceremonially over 5700 years ago. However, it wasn't until 1919 that it was first synthesised by Ernst Spath. Eight years later, an extensive study of mescaline's effects was published in 'Der Meskalunraush', meaning 'The Mescaline High.' Then, in 1952 Dr. Humphry Osmond began working with psychedelics at the Weyburn Mental Hospital in Saskatchewan, Canada. Dr. Osmond was studying the similarities between Mescaline and the adrenaline molecule.

The following year, in 1953, Aldous Huxley consumed 400mg of mescaline under Dr. Osmond's direct supervision, recounting and publishing his first experience in the book The Doors of Perception in 1954. The Doors of Perception went on to catch the attention of many prominent psychedelic researchers and became one of the most referenced pieces of literature in the psychedelic community. The psychedelic rock band The Doors took its name from the title of the book. Among the many researchers who took notice of Huxley's work was Alexander Shulgin, who went on to test mescaline on himself in 1960 at a 350mg dose. This experience sparked an interest in phenethylamines that persisted for the rest of his career as a chemist.Detailed in Shulgin's Lab Notebook #4 on page 471.

In 1961, Shulgin proposed the 'mescaline unit' (ED mescaline divided by ED analogue) as a measure of relative potency of mescaline analogues. In this calculation, the effective dose represents the average of ED1 and ED100 (ED50 or 'median effective dose'). The 'mescaline-unit' (M.U.) was used in studies of many psychoactive compounds by many prominent chemical researchers, including the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. However, it is no longer used.

On October 27 of 1970, the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act was passed in the USA. Part II of this is the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), which defines a scheduling system for drugs. Under this act, mescaline, along with LSD, psilocybin, psilocin, peyote, cannabis and MDA were all listed under Schedule I. In 1991, Alexander and Ann Shulgin first published their book called Phenethylamines I Have Known and Loved, a collection of years' worth of work documenting in detail the synthesis and subjective effects of over 250 phenethylamines, including mescaline. This book is now widely considered to be one of the single most important pieces of literature in the history of psychedelic pharmacology and chemistry. However, because it provided detailed information on the synthesis of hundreds of drugs, the book also led to their widespread clandestine production and distribution in the years following its release.

Usage

The drinking of teas made from mescaline containing cacti is one of the oldest known instances of psychedelic drug use. Europeans noted the use of peyote in Native American religious ceremonies upon early contact, notably by the Huichols in Mexico. Other mescaline-containing cacti such as the San Pedro have a long history of use in South America, from Peru to Ecuador.

Mescaline was used by Native American cultures for spiritual purposes and usually were either consumed dried or in a tea. Nausea and vomiting associated with consuming the cactus itself were thought to be an inherent as well as important part of the experience. It was considered to have a cleansing effect on the mind and body.

In the 60s, mescaline along with LSD and several other psychedelics were researched for the treatment of select mental illnesses, notably alcoholism and depression. In modern times, mescaline continues to be used recreationally - though is somewhat more uncommon than other psychedelics such as the 2C-X series, which are very similar in effects, presumably due to its relatively low potency and difficulty in production.

Dosage

Oral
Threshold 100mg
Light 100-200mg
Common 200-300mg
Strong 300-500mg
Heavy 500-700mg+

Dosages from TripSit Factsheets

Duration

Note: Duration can be significantly longer with higher doses. Onset can vary, Avoid redosing.

Oral
Onset 60-180+ Minutes
Duration 6-12 Hours
After Effects 3-5 Hours
Total 10-20 Hours

Effects

Mescaline HCl is the only form of mescaline which can be vaporized, producing a much faster onset and shorter duration of effects.

Note: The prevalence of negative effects increases with higher doses.

Positive

  • Feelings of interconnectedness
  • Spiritual events
  • Euphoria
  • Increased sensitivity to touch
  • Increased sense of smell
  • Music enhancement
  • Increased persistence of vision

Neutral

  • Altered thinking processes
  • An altered sense of time and self-awareness
  • Closed and open-eye visual phenomena
  • Synesthesia (especially in conjunction with music)
  • Peripheral stimulation
  • Increased cardiovascular activity
  • Increased Perspiration

Negative

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Unwanted spiritual experiences
  • Tension
  • Anxiety
  • Intense feelings of dread and doom

(Note: Nausea and vomiting are extremely common with mescaline, particularly when consumed in the form of a cactus tea. Simple A/B extraction techniques can be applied to mescaline containing cacti. Both the literature and anecdotal evidence suggest that nausea is less common with the pure salts of mescaline.)

Harm Reduction

As with all psychedelic drugs, mescaline carries within it the potential for a very powerful experience, and as such has the potential to result in a very difficult experience ('bad' trip). Mindset and setting play important roles in governing the nature of a psychedelic experience, among other things.

See Psychedelic Harm Reduction and How To Deal With A Bad Trip for more information.

Interactions

Due to the illicit nature of mescaline, little empirical data is available regarding its interaction profile. It can be generally stated that mescaline potentiates the effects of stimulants including serotonergic, dopaminergic, and adrenergic. Care must be taken to reduce (by 80% or more) the amount of any stimulant taken in combination with Mescaline.

Its pharmacology is fairly well understood and based on this it would not be advisable to mix mescaline with irreversible MAOIs and/or lithium. It is advisable to exercise extreme caution when combining any substances lacking well-established interaction profiles.

There are a significant amount of anecdotal reports that involve mixing mescaline with reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (RIMAs) both as extracted salts and ayahuasca style brews from harmaline/harmine containing plants. Caution is advised if one intends to attempt this. It can result in a significant alteration of the intensity and character of a mescaline trip. Note: Tyramine is a biosynthetic precursor of mescaline in some species of mescaline containing cacti. Harmful interactions between tyramine and irreversible MAOIs (such as isocarboxazid) are well established in medical literature so combining mescaline with this particular class of MAOIMonoamine oxidase inhibitor are drugs that inhibit the action of monoamine oxidase in the brain and so allow monoamines to accumulate. is strongly discouraged.

Mescaline itself is oxidatively metabolized primarily by the enzyme SSAO (semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase). This enzyme can be inhibited directly with the hydrolysable tannins present in cranesbill root. Glucosamine is also a weak inhibitor of SSAO. Little information exists about potentiation of mescaline with SSAO inhibitors. It is not typical to do this because of the already long duration and because more mescaline is excreted unchanged in urine than is metabolized oxidatively by this enzyme.

Mescaline shares the anabolic path of serotoninA monoamine neurotransmitter, biochemically derived from tryptophan, that is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being. and is able to form analogous metabolites.

See the Drug combinations chart for more information.

Chemistry and Pharmacology

Chemistry

3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzeneethanamine (also referred to as 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) or mescaline freebase, is a white crystalline odourless solid at room temperature. Its chemical formula is C11H17NO3 and it is soluble in alcohol, chloroform, benzene, xylene, toluene, acetone, dichloromethane, highly soluble in isopropyl alcohol, soluble in d-limonene and moderately soluble in water. It is practically insoluble in ether or petroleum ether and has melting/boiling points of 35-36°C and 180°C (12 mmHg) respectively. The freebase has a molecular weight of 211.26.

Note: Mescaline freebase will form mescaline carbonate upon prolonged exposure to air.

The hydrochloric salt of mescaline is the most common form by far. It has a melting point of 184° C according to the Merck Index. It has the appearance of needle-like clear/whitish crystals and is moderately soluble in water, alcohol, methanol. (at least 1.0 mg/ml) (Merck Index) In contrast to the freebase, it is practically insoluble in toluene and acetone, insoluble in isopropyl alcohol, diethyl ether, and d-limonene. The hydrochloric salt has a molecular weight of 247.72. The second most common salt of mescaline seems to be the sulfate dihydrate. It also appears as a whitish crystalline solid, retaining the whitish colour albeit somewhat brighter, but losing the needle-like structure in favour of a more rock-like appearance. It is soluble in hot water, methanol and insoluble in near-freezing water, alcohol and acetone. The sulphate has a melting point of 183–186 °C and a molecular weight of 309.33606.

Many salts of mescaline are attainable and all have different physical properties and solubility profiles. Here we cover the two most commonly explored salts. For some more information on the salts not covered here, check out the links section at the bottom of the page.

Pharmacology

Mescaline shares structural similarities with SerotoninA monoamine neurotransmitter, biochemically derived from tryptophan, that is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being. and DopamineA neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention, learning, and the brain’s pleasure and reward system.. Mescaline acts similarly to other psychedelics by binding to and activating the serotoninA monoamine neurotransmitter, biochemically derived from tryptophan, that is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being. 5-HT2A receptor with low affinity and high efficacy. Mescaline is also known to bind to and activate the serotoninA monoamine neurotransmitter, biochemically derived from tryptophan, that is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being. 5-HT2C receptor. Tolerance builds with repeated usage, lasting for a few days. Mescaline causes cross-tolerance with other serotonergic psychedelics such as LSD, psilocin and 2C-x compounds.

Some studies have concluded that mescaline goes through the body nearly unchanged. Six hours after dosing half of dose has been excreted and of between 20% and 50% of it is unchanged. The rest is the carboxylic acid, most likely degraded by MAOMonoamine Oxidase, an enzyme that catalyses the metabolism of many drugs (e.g., DMT, dopamine and serotonin)..

LD50The dosage of a substance at which 50% of the exposed subjects does not survive. To estimate the LD50 for humans, tests are conducted on non-human subjects.

The LD50The dosage of a substance at which 50% of the exposed subjects does not survive. To estimate the LD50 for humans, tests are conducted on non-human subjects. is unknown in humans. In experiments with rats, the LD50The dosage of a substance at which 50% of the exposed subjects does not survive. To estimate the LD50 for humans, tests are conducted on non-human subjects. for mescaline has been established in the range of 800-1200mg/kg orallyRoute of administration in which the subject swallows a substance.. See Mescaline MSDS via hazard.com Considering the human dose range is about 100-1000mg, it would be very difficult to consume enough Mescaline to kill a human. As such, there are no recorded human deaths from the ingestion of mescaline. With that said, caution is still advised when consuming high doses.

Legal status

  • In Australia, the peyote cacti and other mescaline-containing plants such as San Pedro are illegal in Western Australia, Queensland and the Northern Territory, whilst in other states such as Victoria and New South Wales, they are legal for ornamental and gardening purposes.
  • In Canada, The Netherlands, and Germany, mescaline in raw form and dried mescaline-containing cacti are considered an illegal drug, however, anyone may grow and use peyote, or Lophophora williamsii, along with Echinopsis Panchanoi and Echinopsis Peruviana without restriction, as it is specifically exempt from the legislation. In Canada, mescaline is classified as a schedule III drug under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, whereas peyote is exempt.
  • In the United Kingdom, mescaline in purified powder form is a Class A drug, however, dried cactus can be bought and sold legally.
  • In the United States, mescaline was made illegal in 1970 by the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. The drug was prohibited internationally by the * 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances and is categorized as a Schedule I 'hallucinogen' by the CSA. Mescaline is legal only for certain groups (such as the Native American Church) and in scientific and medical research. The current state of the law is that while the federal government may not restrict the use of peyote in ceremony, individual states do have a right to restrict its use/ Many states, including Utah, have legalized peyote usage with 'sincere religious intent', or within a religious organization regardless of race.

Links

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