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<table style="font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 9pt;" width="100%" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0">
 
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="50%"><strong>Other Names</strong>
 
 
Mescalin, meskalin, mezcalin, mezkalin, 3,4,5-trimethoxy-
 
 
benzolmethanamine, 3,4,S-trimethoxyf3-
 
 
phenethylamine, 3,4,5-trimethoxyethyl- phenylamine,
 
 
TMPFA, 2-(3,4,S-trimethoxy-phenyl)ethylamine
 
 
Empirical formula: CllH17N03
 
 
Substance type: lophophora alkaloid, f3-phenethylamine
 
 
Mescaline was first isolated in 1886 from "mescal
 
 
buttons;' the aboveground parts of the peyote
 
 
cactus (Lophophora williamsii), and was named
 
 
after them. Mescaline is the most thoroughly
 
 
studied of all psychoactive plant constituents. In
 
 
the period between 1886 and 1950, more than one
 
 
hundred mescaline research studies were published
 
 
in the German language alone (Passie
 
 
1994). This alkaloid was found to be a component
 
 
of numerous cacti (see the table on page 847). And
 
 
it is possible that mescaline is produced from
 
 
dopamine in vitro (Paul et al. 1969; Rosenberg et
 
 
al. 1969).
 
 
Arthur Heffter was the first person to initially
 
 
test an isolated plant constituent on himself (Heffter
 
 
1894). The classic Heffter dosage consisted of 150
 
 
mg mescaline hydrochloride (HCL). A psychedelic
 
 
dosage is now considered to be 178 to 256 mg of
 
 
mescaline HCL or 200 to 400 mg of mescaline
 
 
sulfate. The highest measured dosage reported in
 
 
the literature was 1,500 mg. Taken orally,S mg/kg
 
 
of pure mescaline is regarded as a hallucinogenic
 
 
dosage. In the toxicological literature, there is no
 
 
known lethal dosage of mescaline when it is
 
 
ingested orally (Brown and Malone 1978, 14).
 
 
Western psychiatry has been aware of
 
 
consciousness-altering drugs since the nineteenth
 
 
century. Mescaline was the first substance to be
 
 
tested and applied in psychiatry. At the time,
 
 
researchers regarded the effects of mescaline on a healthy subject as inducing a state that was otherwise
 
 
known only in psychopathic patients. This
 
 
led to the idea of pharmacologically induced
 
 
"model psychoses" (Leuner 1962*). The effects of
 
 
mescaline (and also of psilocybin) were described
 
 
as "intoxication, toxic ecstasy, clouding of consciousness,
 
 
hallucinosis, model psychosis, drug
 
 
intoxication, emphasis, daydream;' et cetera
 
 
(Passie 1994). Only in recent years has there been a
 
 
shift in thinking away from the model psychosis
 
 
concept and a recognition that psychedelic states
 
 
and psychoses do not have a common origin
 
 
(HermIe et al. 1988*, 1992*, 1993*).
 
 
The predominant effects of mescaline are a
 
 
"reveling of the individual senses and primarily
 
 
visual orgies" (Ellis 1971, 21). The mescaline
 
 
inebriation was first systematically described by
 
 
Kurt Beringer in 1927. To date, there have been
 
 
many encounters with the substance, and the most
 
 
commonly reported experiences are ecstatic and
 
 
visionary in nature:
 
 
My awareness of subject and object
 
 
disappeared, and I felt dissolved, rising in an
 
 
orchestra of sounds. This ecstatic state was
 
 
accompanied by an indescribable sensation of
 
 
happiness. (Ammon and Gotte 1971,32)
 
 
It has often been suggested that pure mescaline
 
 
can be taken in place of Lophophora williamsii.
 
 
"However, most peyote users are of the opinion
 
 
that synthetic mescaline cannot be compared with
 
 
the effects of peyote" (Harp 1996, 16).
 
 
<strong>On the Cultural History of Mescaline</strong>
 
 
Aldous Huxley (1894-1963) made the psychedelic
 
 
effects of mescaline famous in his two essays "The
 
 
Doors of Perception" and "Heaven and Hell:'
 
 
Usually the person taking mescaline will
 
 
discover an inner world that is so obviously
 
 
something given, so enlighteningly eternal
 
 
and sacred, as the transformed outer world
 
 
that I had perceived with my eyes open.
 
 
(Huxley 1970,32*)
 
 
It is very likely that Hermann Hesse also had
 
 
contact with mescaline, and that it may have
 
 
inspired his novel SteppenwolJ, one of the cult
 
 
books of the hippie generation. The psychedelic
 
 
rock band Steppenwolf took its name from the
 
 
book, and the novel also became a motion picture
 
 
starring Max von Sydow (USA 1974).
 
 
Nationalgalerie, a German New Wave band,
 
 
sings on its album Mescaline, "To be transformed by a trickster fairy. My lawyer advised me to take
 
 
some mescaline" (Sony Records, 1995).
 
 
The French novelist and artist Henri Michaux
 
 
(1899-1984) studied mescaline during the 1960s
 
 
and ingested it to see what effects it might have
 
 
upon his creativity. Like many other FrenchJmen,
 
 
however, he summarized his experience as an
 
 
"accursed miracle" and scribbled his experiences of inner turmoil on paper (Michaux 1986). Today,
 
 
these "drawings" are still reproduced in publications
 
 
as an example of the "psychosis-like"
 
 
effects of mescaline.
 
 
&nbsp;</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="53%"><strong>Cacti Containing Mescaline</strong>
 
 
(from Doetsch et al. 1980; La Barre 1979; Mata and McLaughlin 1982*; Shulgin 1995*; Lundstrom
 
 
1971; Pardanini et al. 1978; Ott 1993*; Turner and Heyman 1960)
 
<table style="font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 9pt;" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0">
 
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><strong>Species</strong></td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><strong>Occurrence</strong></td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><strong>Use</strong></td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Gymnocalycium gibbosum </em>(Haw.) Pfeiffer</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Argentina</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Gymnocalycium leeanum </em>(Hook.) Br. et R.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Argentina, Uruguay</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Islaya minor </em>Backeb.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">southern Peru</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Lophophora diffusa </em>(Croizat) Bravo</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Mexico</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">peyote substitute</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">[syn. <em>Lophophora echinata]</em></td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Lophophora jourdaniana </em>[nom. nud.]</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Lophophora williamsii </em>(Lem.) Coult.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Mexico</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">entheogen</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">[syn. <em>Lophophora fricii </em>Habermann]</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Myrtillocactus geometrizans </em>(Mart.) Cons.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Mexico</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Opuntia acanthocarpa </em>Engelm. et Bigel.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Opuntia basilaria </em>Engelm. et Bigel.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Opuntia cylindrica </em>(Lam.) S.-D.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Chile</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">inebriant502</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Opuntia echinocarpa </em>Engelm. et Bigel.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Opuntia ficus-indica </em>(L.) Mill.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Mexico, Egypt503</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">food</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Opuntia imbricata </em>(Haw.) DC.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Arizona</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Opuntia spinosior </em>(Engelm.) Tourney</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Arizona</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Pelecyphora aselliformis </em>Ehrenb.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Mexico</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">peyote substitute</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Pereskia corrugata </em>Cutak</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Florida</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Pereskia tampicana </em>Web.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Mexico</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Pereskiopsis scandens </em>Br. et R.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Yucatan</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Polaskia chende </em>(Gossel.) Gibs.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">California</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Polaskia </em>sp.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">California</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Pterocereus gaumeri </em>(Br. et R.) Mac-Doug. et Mir.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">California</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Pterocereus </em>sp.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">California</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Stenocereus beneckei </em>(Ehrenb.) Buxbaum</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">California</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Stenocereus eruca </em>(Brand.) Gibs. et Horak</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Baja California</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Stenocereus stellatus </em>(Pfeiffer) Rice</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">California</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Stenocereus treleasei </em>(Br. et R.) Backeb.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">California</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Stenocereus </em>sp.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Stetsonia coryne </em>(SD.) Br. et R.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Argentina</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus bridgesii </em>(SD.) Br. et R.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Peru, Bolivia</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">entheogen</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus cuscoensis </em>Br. et R.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Peru</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus fulvinanus </em>Ritt.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Chile</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus macrogonus </em>(SD.) Ricc.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Peru</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus pachanoi </em>Br. et R.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Peru, Ecuador</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">entheogen</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus peruvianus </em>Br. et R.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Peru</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">entheogen</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus spachianus </em>(Lem.) Rice.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Indiana (cultivated)</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus strigosus </em>(SD.) Br. et R.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Argentina</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus taquimbalensis </em>Card.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Peru</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus terscheckii </em>(Parm.) Br. et R.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Peru, northwestern</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus validus </em>(Monv.) Backbg.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Argentina</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="213"><em>Trichocereus werdermannianus </em>Backbg.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">Peru, Bolivia</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="213">&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
 
</table>
 
<strong>Commercial Forms and Regulations
 
 
</strong>Mescaline is available primarily as a hydrochloride
 
 
or sulfate. In Germany, it is considered a "narcotic in which trafficking is prohibited." In the United
 
 
States, the Controlled Substances Act lists mescaline
 
 
as a Schedule I substance (Korner 1994,38*).
 
 
<strong>
 
 
Literature</strong>
 
 
See also the entries for Lophophora williamsii,
 
 
Trichocereus pachanoi, Trichocereus spp., and ~phenethylamines.
 
 
Ammon, Gunter, and Jurgen Gotte. 1971. Ergebnisse
 
 
fruher Meskalin-Forschung. In
 
 
BewuBtseinserweiternde Drogen aus
 
 
psychoanalytischer Sicht, special issue,
 
 
Dynamische Psychiatrie, 23-45.
 
 
Beringer, Kurt. 1927. Der Meskalinrausch. Berlin:
 
 
Springer. Repr. 1969.
 
 
Blofeld, John. 1966. A high yogic experience achieved
 
 
with meskalin. Psychedelic Review 7:27-32.
 
 
Doetsch, P. W., J. M. Cassidy, and J. L. McLaughlin.
 
 
1980. Cactus alkaloids. XL: Identification of
 
 
mescaline and other phenethylamines in Pereskia,
 
 
Pereskiopsis and Islaya by use of fluorescamine
 
 
conjugates. Journal ofChromotography 189:79.
 
 
Ellis, Havelock. 1971. Zum Phanomen der MeskalinIntoxikation,
 
 
Bemerkungen zum Problem der
 
 
Meskalin-Intoxikation. In
 
 
BewuBtseinserweiternde Drogen aus
 
 
psychoanalytischer Sicht, special issue,
 
 
Dynamische Psychiatrie, 17-22.
 
 
Frederking, W. 1954. Meskalin in der Psychotherapie.
 
 
Medizinischer Monatsspiegel, 3:5-7.
 
 
Harf, Jurgen C. 1996. Meskalin und Peyote. Grow!
 
 
6/96: 15-16.
 
 
Heffter, Arthur. 1894. aber zwei Kakteenalkaloide.
 
 
Berichte der deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft
 
 
27:2975.
 
 
Kluver) Heinrich. 1926. Mescal vision and eidetic
 
 
vision. American Journal ofPsych0 logy 37:502-15.
 
 
---. 1969. Mescal and mechanisms of
 
 
hallucinations. Chicago: The University of
 
 
Chicago Press.
 
 
La Barre, Weston. 1979. Peyotl and mescaline.
 
 
Journal ofPsychedelic Drugs 11 (1-2): 33-39.
 
 
Lundstrom, Jan. 1971. Biosynthetic studies on
 
 
mescaline and related cactus alkaloids. Acta
 
 
Pharm. Suecica 8:275-302.
 
 
Michaux, Henri. 1986. Unseliges Wunder: Das
 
 
Meskalin. Munich and Vienna: Carl Hanser.
 
 
Pardanani, J. H., B. N. Meyer, and J. L. McLaughlin.
 
 
1978. Cactus alkaloids. XXXVII. Mescaline and
 
 
related compounds from Opuntia spinosior.
 
 
Lloydia 41 (3): 286-88.
 
 
Passie, Torsten. 1994. Ausrichtungen, Methoden und
 
 
Ergebnisse fruher Meskalinforschungen im
 
 
deutschsprachigen Raum (bis 1950). In Jahrbuch
 
 
des Europiiischen Collegiums fur
 
 
Bewufltseinsstudien (1993/1994), 103-11. Berlin:
 
 
VWB.
 
 
Paul., A.G., H. Rosenberg, and K. L. Khanna. 1969.
 
 
The roles of 3,4,5-trihydroxy-~-phenethylamine
 
 
and 3,4-dimethoxy-~-phenethylaminein their
 
 
biosynthesis of mescaline. Lloydia 32 (1): 36-39.
 
 
Rosenberg, H., K. L. Khanna, M. Takido, and A. G.
 
 
Paul. 1969. The biosynthesis of mescaline in
 
 
Lophophora williamsii. Lloydia 32 (3): 334-38.
 
 
Turner, W. J., and J. J. Heyman. 1960. The presence of
 
 
mescaline in Opuntia cylindrica. Journal of
 
 
Organic Chemistry 25:2250.
 
 
Wallraff, Gunter. 1968. Meskalin-Ein Selbstversuch.
 
 
Berlin: Verlag Peter-Paul Zahl.</td>
 
</tr>
 
 
 
 
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[[Category:Drugs]]
 
[[Category:Psychedelic]]
 
[[Category:Psychedelic]]

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