|The Pima and 0'odham (= Papago) Indians both
use the name jievut hiawsik, «earth flower;' to refer
to lichens that live on rocks. One species, which
unfortunately has not been identified botanically,
exudes a strong scent, has an ashen gray color, and
lives on rocks and old, dry wood. The lichen once
had a religious significance. It was mixed with
tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and smoked during
the summer dances (cf. kinnikinnick). It is said to
have an effect similar to that of marijuana (Cannabis
indica) and to "make young men crazy." The
Pima believe that a man can conquer any woman
after he has smoked the lichen (Curtin 1984, 77).
Until now, lichens have been almost completely
unknown as psychoactive substances in ethnopharmacology
(cf. Dictyonema). Recendy, beardlichens have found use as incense.
Curtin, 1. S. M. 1984. By the prophet ofthe earth:
Ethnobotany ofthe Pima. Tucson: University ofArizona Press.