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[[Category:Drugs]]
<table style="font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 9pt;" width="100%" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0">
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[[Category:Psychedelic]]
 
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<tr>
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<td valign="top" width="50%"><strong>Other Names</strong>
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Endabuse, ibogain, ibogaina, ibogaIne, NIH 10567,
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12-methoxy-ibogamin, 12-methoxy-ibogamine
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Substance type: indole alkaloid, indole alkylamine,
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ibogane type
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Chemically, ibogaine is closely related to the ~carbolines,
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and particularly to harmaline and
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harmine. It belongs to the group of cyclic tryptamine
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derivatives.
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Ibogaine was first isolated from the root cortex
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of Tabernanthe iboga in France in 1901 (Dybowsky
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and Landgren 1901). Ibogaine and analogous
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alkaloids (ibogane type) also occur in Pandaca
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retusa (Lam.) Mgf. [sYll. Tabernaemontana retusa
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(Lam.) Pichon] (cf. Tabernaemontana spp.), a dogbane species native to Madagscar (Le MenOlivier
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et al. 1974). Many genera in the Family ApocYllaceae,
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including Tabernaemontana, Voacanga
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spp., Stemmadenia, Ervatamia, and Gabunea, contain
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ibogaine-type indole alkaloids (ibogamine, tabernanthine,
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voacangine, ibogaline) (Prins 1988, 5).
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Between 1940 and 1950, most research into
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ibogaine was conducted in France. Because it
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exhibited potent stimulating properties, the initial
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pharmacological research focused on ibogaine's
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neuropharmacological effects. Only later were the
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hallucinogenic effects more precisely studied
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(Sanchez-Ramos and Mash 1996,357).
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In the 1960s, the Chilean psychiatrist Claudio
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Naranjo introduced ibogaine into psychotherapy
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as a "fantasy-enhancing drug" (Naranjo 1969*).
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One subject provided the following account of a
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shamanic experience during a psychotherapeutic
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session with the "stomach drug" ibogaine:
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I am a panther! A black panther! I defend
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myself, I stand up. I snort powerfully, with the
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breath of a panther, predator breath! I move
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like a panther, my eyes are those of a panther, I
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see my whiskers. I roar) and I bite. I react like a
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panther, offense is the best defense.
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Now I hear drums. I dance. My joints are
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gears, hinges, hubs. I can be a knee, a bolt,
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could do something, indeed almost anything.
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And I can loose [sic] myself again in this chaos
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of nonexistence and the perception of vague,
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abstract ideas of changing forms, where there
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exists a sense of the truth of all things and an
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order that one should set out to discover.
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(Naranjo 1979, 188*)
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In Europe, the Swiss psychiatrist Peter
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Baumann provided the main impetus for the use
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of ibogaine in psychotherapy:
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Baumann reported about experiments with
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completely synthetic ibogaine, which he used
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on only a few patients with whom a long and
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positive therapeutic relationship existed. The
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dosage was usually 5 mg/kg of body weight. At
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this dosage level, the effects lasted for approximately
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5 to 8 hours and diminished only very
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slowly. In his experiments with ibogaine, the
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author found that it was not the substance as
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such that triggered a specific effect but that it
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induced an unspecific psychological and
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physical stimulus that was then responded to
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in the language that patient was accustomed
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to using with this therapist. (Leuner and
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Schlichting 1986, 162)
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Unfortunately, an accident led to this initially
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promising research being halted. Marina Prins
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(1988) subsequently compared Baumann's results
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with those reported by Naranjo.
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Today, ibogaine is in the spotlight of
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neuropharmacological research because it has
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been shown that this alkaloid can be used to
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reduce and cure the addictive behavior of people
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dependent on other drugs (heroine, cocaine)
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(Sanchez-Ramos and Mash 1996; cf. Maps 6 [2;
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1996]: 4-6). For example, ibogaine has been found
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to suppress the motor activity that occurs during
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opiate withdrawal. It has been proposed that
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ibogaine, when
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ingested by opiate addicts in a single high
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dosage, dramatically reduces withdrawal
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symptoms while simultaneously causing a trip
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that provides the patient with such deep
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insights into the personal causes of the
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addiction that a majority of the individuals
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who receive such therapy can live for months
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without relapse. However, it should be noted
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that several additional sessions may be necessary before a persistent stabilization
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occurs. (Naeher 1996, 12)
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Experiments with primates have shown that
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ibogaine reduces opiate addiction and partially
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blocks withdrawal symptoms. Although the
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neuropharmacological mechanism behind these
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effects has not yet been discovered, Deborah Mash
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and her team in Miami (Mash 1993; Mash et al.
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1995) are researching this question. Ibogaine has
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been demonstrated to interact with numerous
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different receptors, and it has been concluded
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that this breadth of interaction is the reason for
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ibogaine's effectiveness in addiction therapy
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(Sweetman et al. 1995).
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In the United States, the use of ibogaine to treat
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addiction has been patented as the clinical Lotsof
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procedure (Lotsof 1995). Whether this procedure
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will receive endorsement from the medical community
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remains to be seen (Touchette 1995). A
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novel about this facet of ibogaine (which incorporates
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such actual people as Howard Lotso£) was
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published in Slovenia (Knut 1994).
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Ibogaine enjoys a reputation for being an
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exceptionally potent and stimulating aphrodisiac
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(Naranjo 1969*).500 The research to date has
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entirely neglected this aspect.
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Another substance of pharmacological and
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therapeutic interest is noribogaine, which is
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chemically and pharmacologically very similar to
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Prozac (fluoxetine). In the United States, Prozac is
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one of the most frequently prescribed psychopharmaca
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for depression, and it is celebrated as
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the "happy drug" in the popular press (Kramer
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1995; Rufer 1995*).</td>
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<td valign="top" width="53%"><strong>Dosage and Application</strong>
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Two to four tablets containing up to 8 mg ibogaine
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per tablet may be given daily as a stimulant for
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states of exhaustion, debility, et cetera. Nausea,
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vomiting, and ataxia are possible side effects. When
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used for psychotherapeutic purposes (Baumann),
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dosages of 3 to 6 mg of ibogaine hydrochloride per
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kg of body weight were administered. For psychoactive
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purposes, dosages of around 200 mg are
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recommended (Prins 1988, 47).
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<strong>Commercial Forms and Regulations</strong>
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Ibogaine was formerly available as a medicine
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under the trade name Bogadin (Schneider and
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McArthur 1956). In the United States, ibogaine is
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considered a Schedule I drug and has been
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prohibited since 1970. However, ibogaine
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hydrochloride is marketed under the trade name
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Endabuse and can be used with the appropriate
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special permit. In Germany, ibogaine is not
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considered a narcotic under the guidelines of the
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narcotic laws and is therefore legal (Korner 1994,
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1573*).
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<strong>Literature</strong>
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See also the entries for Tabernaemontana spp.,
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Tabernanthe iboga, Voacanga spp., and indole
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alkaloids.
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Baumann, Peter. 1986. "Halluzinogen"-unterstiitzte
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Psychotherapie heute. Schweizerische Arztezeitung
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67 (47): 2202-5.
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Dybowski, J., and E. Landrin. 1901. Sur l'iboga, sur
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ses proprietes excitantes, sa composition et sur
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l'alcaloide nouveau qu'il renferme. Comptes
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Rendues 133:748.
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Fromberg, Eric. 1996. Ibogaine. Pan 3:2-8. (Includes
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a very good bibliography.)
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Knut, Amon Jr. 1994. Iboga. Maribor: Skupina
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Zrcalo. (Cf. Curare 18 (1; 1995): 245-46.)
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Kramer, Peter D. 1995. GlUck aufRezept: Der
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unheimliche Erfolg der GlUckspille Fluctin.
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Munich: Kosel.
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Le Men-Olivier, 1., B. Richards, and Jean Le Men.
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1974. Alcaloides des graines du Pandaca retusa.
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Phytochemistry 13:280-81.
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Lotsof, Howard S. 1995. Ibogaine in the treatment of
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chemical dependence disorders: Clinical
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perspectives. Maps 5 (3): 15-27.
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Mash, Deborah C. 1995. Development of ibogaine as
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an anti-addictive drug: A progress report from
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the University of Miami School of Medicine.
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Maps 6 (1): 29-30.
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Mash, Deborah C., Julie K. Staley, M. H. Baumann,
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R. B. Rothman, and W. 1. Hearn. 1995.
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Identification of a primary metabolite of
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ibogaine that targets serotonin transporters and
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elevates serotonin. Life Sciences 57 (3): 45-50.
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Naeher, Karl. 1996. Ibogain: Eine Droge gegen
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Drogenahhangigkeit? Hanjblatt 3 (21): 12-15
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(interview).
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Prins, Marina. 1988. "Von Iboga zu Ibogain: Dber
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eine vielseitige Droge Westafrikas und ihre
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Anwendung in der Psychotherapie." Unpublished
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licentiate thesis, Zurich. (Very rich bibliography.)
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Sanchez-Ramos, Juan R., and Deborah Mash. 1996.
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Pharmacotherapy of drug-dependence with
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ibogain. Jahrbuch fur Transkulturelle Medizin und
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Psychotherapie 6 (1995): 353-67.
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Schneider, J., and M. McArthur. 1956. Potentiation
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action of ibogain (BogadinTM) on morphin
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analgesia. Experimenta 8:323-24.
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Sweetman, P. M., J. Lancaster, Adele Snowman, J. 1.
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Collins, S. Perschke, C. Bauer, and J. Ferkany.
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1995. Receptor binding profile suggests multiple
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mechanisms of action are responsible for
+
 
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ibogaine's putative anti-addiction activity.
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Psychopharmacology 118:369-76.
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Touchette, Nancy. 1995. Anti-addiction drug ibogain
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on trial. Nature Medicine 1 (4): 288-89.</td>
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</tr>
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</table>
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Latest revision as of 15:39, 14 July 2014

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