Line 1: Line 1:
 +
== Other Names ==
  
<table style="font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 9pt;" width="100%" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0">
+
7-chlor-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4benzodiazepin-2-on, sleeping pill, tranquilizer, Valium
 
+
<tr>
+
<td valign="top" width="50%"><strong>Other Names</strong>
+
 
+
7-chlor-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4benzodiazepin-
+
 
+
2-on, sleeping pill, tranquilizer,
+
 
+
Valium
+
  
 
Substance type: benzodiazepine
 
Substance type: benzodiazepine
  
Diazepam, better known as Valium, was originally
+
Diazepam, better known as Valium, was originally synthesized in the laboratory and introduced as a therapeutic drug (psychopharmaca, tranquilizer) in the 1960s. The substance produces sedative, euphoric, and especially anxiolytic (anxietyreducing) effects (Henningfield 1988, 17,35*). During the investigation of diazepam's pharmacology, it was discovered that the human nervous system has a special receptor for this molecule, known as the benzodiazepine receptor or the [3H] -diazepam receptor. Luk et al. (1983) found three isoflans in the urine of cattle that may possibly dock (as neurotransmitters) in the benzodiazepine receptor. It is known that the kavapyrones (cf. Piper methysticum) bind to the [3H] -diazepam receptor.
  
synthesized in the laboratory and introduced as a
+
Recently, flavonoids in the buds of the South American linden tree (Tilia tomentosa Moench; Tiliaceae; cf. tila) were found to bind to the benzodiazepine receptor. A substance found in Passiflora caerulea 1. (cf. Passiflora spp.), 5,7-dihydroxyflavone, also docks to the same location (Viola et al. 1994). The benzodiazepine receptor has been shown to be present in all vertebrates, suggesting that it appeared at a very early date in the evolution of the nervous system and has been preserved into the present. This indicates that it plays an important function in the nervous system and that there are endogenous substances that bind to it in order to transmit certain messages (Muller 1988). But what do these substances look like? At first they were thought to be polypeptides, but then traces of diazepam and desmethyldiazepam were discovered in the brains of humans and other animals. Because diazepam and its initial metabolite appear in breast milk and the placenta after the ingestion of Valium (Wessen et al. 1985), it was first believed that the diazepam must have been introduced into the body from outside" But when diazepam was subsequently also found to be present in brains that dated to a time before the discovery of Valium synthesis, it was concluded that diazepam was not a synthetic chemical at all but a naturally occurring neurotransmitter in the nervous system (Muller 1988). Thus it was demonstrated that "Valium, the very symbol of chemical psychopharmaca" (Zehentauer 1992, 121 *), is actually a natural substance.
  
therapeutic drug (psychopharmaca, tranquilizer)
+
Pharmacologists were surprised when subsequent research demonstrated the presence of diazepam and desmethyldiazepam in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum 1.; cf. Solanum spp.) and in such diverse grains as wheat (Triticum aestivum 1.; cf. beer), corn/maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa 1.; cf. sake) (Muller 1988). Valium, in other words, is a natural active constituent in plants. However, the concentration in these plants is so low that a person would likely not notice any Valium effects even after consuming a whole sack of potatoes. Valium is one of the most widely used sedative drugs in modern society and is normally prescribed for the treatment of anxiety and sleeping disorders.498 Not surprisingly, Valium also finds use as a recreational drug in some circles, particularly in combination with other substances. Its euphoric properties can be greatly affected by alcohol, which can at times counteract the sedative properties, resulting in powerful stimulating effects. Valium is one of the more commonly used psychopharmaca in the music scene. Several rock bands, including the classic "space rock" band Hawkwind CValium 10," 1978), have dedicated titles to the substance.
  
in the 1960s. The substance produces sedative,
+
== Commercial Forms and Regulations ==
  
euphoric, and especially anxiolytic (anxietyreducing)
+
Valium is available by prescription only. In the United States, it is listed as a Schedule IV drug under the Controlled Substances Act.
  
effects (Henningfield 1988, 17,35*).
+
== Literature ==
  
During the investigation of diazepam's
+
Flesch, Peter. 1996. SchlafstOrungen bei iilteren Patienten: Auf Benzodiazepine kann meist verzichtet werden. Jatros Neurologie 12:6-7 (interview).
  
pharmacology, it was discovered that the human
+
Henningsfield, Jack E. 1988. Barbiturates: Sleeping potion or intoxicant. The Encyclopedia of
  
nervous system has a special receptor for this
 
 
molecule, known as the benzodiazepine receptor
 
 
or the [3H] -diazepam receptor. Luk et al. (1983)
 
 
found three isoflans in the urine of cattle that may
 
 
possibly dock (as neurotransmitters) in the
 
 
benzodiazepine receptor. It is known that the
 
 
kavapyrones (cf. Piper methysticum) bind to the
 
 
[3H] -diazepam receptor. Recently, flavonoids in
 
 
the buds of the South American linden tree (Tilia
 
 
tomentosa Moench; Tiliaceae; cf. tila) were found
 
 
to bind to the benzodiazepine receptor. A
 
 
substance found in Passiflora caerulea 1. (cf.
 
 
Passiflora spp.), 5,7-dihydroxyflavone, also docks
 
 
to the same location (Viola et al. 1994).
 
 
The benzodiazepine receptor has been shown
 
 
to be present in all vertebrates, suggesting that it
 
 
appeared at a very early date in the evolution of
 
 
the nervous system and has been preserved into
 
 
the present. This indicates that it plays an
 
 
important function in the nervous system and that
 
 
there are endogenous substances that bind to it in
 
 
order to transmit certain messages (Muller 1988).
 
 
But what do these substances look like? At first
 
 
they were thought to be polypeptides, but then
 
 
traces of diazepam and desmethyldiazepam were
 
 
discovered in the brains of humans and other
 
 
animals. Because diazepam and its initial
 
 
metabolite appear in breast milk and the placenta
 
 
after the ingestion of Valium (Wessen et al. 1985),
 
 
it was first believed that the diazepam must have
 
 
been introduced into the body from outside" But
 
 
when diazepam was subsequently also found to be
 
 
present in brains that dated to a time before the
 
 
discovery of Valium synthesis, it was concluded
 
 
that diazepam was not a synthetic chemical at all
 
 
but a naturally occurring neurotransmitter in the
 
 
nervous system (Muller 1988). Thus it was
 
 
demonstrated that "Valium, the very symbol of
 
 
chemical psychopharmaca" (Zehentauer 1992,
 
 
121 *), is actually a natural substance.
 
 
Pharmacologists were surprised when subsequent
 
 
research demonstrated the presence of diazepam
 
 
and desmethyldiazepam in potatoes (Solanum
 
 
tuberosum 1.; cf. Solanum spp.) and in such diverse
 
 
grains as wheat (Triticum aestivum 1.; cf. beer),
 
 
corn/maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa 1.;
 
 
cf. sake) (Muller 1988). Valium, in other words, is
 
 
a natural active constituent in plants. However, the
 
 
concentration in these plants is so low that a
 
 
person would likely not notice any Valium effects
 
 
even after consuming a whole sack of potatoes.
 
 
Valium is one of the most widely used sedative
 
 
drugs in modern society and is normally prescribed
 
 
for the treatment of anxiety and sleeping
 
 
disorders.498 Not surprisingly, Valium also finds
 
 
use as a recreational drug in some circles, particularly
 
 
in combination with other substances. Its
 
 
euphoric properties can be greatly affected by
 
 
alcohol, which can at times counteract the sedative
 
 
properties, resulting in powerful stimulating effects.
 
 
Valium is one of the more commonly used
 
 
psychopharmaca in the music scene. Several rock
 
 
bands, including the classic "space rock" band
 
 
Hawkwind CValium 10," 1978), have dedicated
 
 
titles to the substance.</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="53%"><strong>Commercial Forms and Regulations
 
 
</strong>Valium is available by prescription only. In the
 
 
United States, it is listed as a Schedule IV drug
 
 
under the Controlled Substances Act.<strong></strong>
 
 
'''Literature'''
 
 
Flesch, Peter. 1996. SchlafstOrungen bei iilteren
 
 
Patienten: Auf Benzodiazepine kann meist
 
 
verzichtet werden. Jatros Neurologie 12:6-7
 
 
(interview).
 
 
Henningsfield, Jack E. 1988. Barbiturates: Sleeping
 
 
potion or intoxicant. The Encyclopedia of
 
  
 
Psychoactive Drugs. London, Toronto, and New
 
Psychoactive Drugs. London, Toronto, and New
 
 
York: Burke Publishing Company.
 
York: Burke Publishing Company.
  
Line 216: Line 57:
 
desmethyldiazepam in breast milk. Journal of
 
desmethyldiazepam in breast milk. Journal of
  
Psychoactive Drugs 17 (1): 55-56.</td>
+
Psychoactive Drugs 17 (1): 55-56.
</tr>
+
 
+
</table>
+

Revision as of 22:35, 29 January 2013

Other Names

7-chlor-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4benzodiazepin-2-on, sleeping pill, tranquilizer, Valium

Substance type: benzodiazepine

Diazepam, better known as Valium, was originally synthesized in the laboratory and introduced as a therapeutic drug (psychopharmaca, tranquilizer) in the 1960s. The substance produces sedative, euphoric, and especially anxiolytic (anxietyreducing) effects (Henningfield 1988, 17,35*). During the investigation of diazepam's pharmacology, it was discovered that the human nervous system has a special receptor for this molecule, known as the benzodiazepine receptor or the [3H] -diazepam receptor. Luk et al. (1983) found three isoflans in the urine of cattle that may possibly dock (as neurotransmitters) in the benzodiazepine receptor. It is known that the kavapyrones (cf. Piper methysticum) bind to the [3H] -diazepam receptor.

Recently, flavonoids in the buds of the South American linden tree (Tilia tomentosa Moench; Tiliaceae; cf. tila) were found to bind to the benzodiazepine receptor. A substance found in Passiflora caerulea 1. (cf. Passiflora spp.), 5,7-dihydroxyflavone, also docks to the same location (Viola et al. 1994). The benzodiazepine receptor has been shown to be present in all vertebrates, suggesting that it appeared at a very early date in the evolution of the nervous system and has been preserved into the present. This indicates that it plays an important function in the nervous system and that there are endogenous substances that bind to it in order to transmit certain messages (Muller 1988). But what do these substances look like? At first they were thought to be polypeptides, but then traces of diazepam and desmethyldiazepam were discovered in the brains of humans and other animals. Because diazepam and its initial metabolite appear in breast milk and the placenta after the ingestion of Valium (Wessen et al. 1985), it was first believed that the diazepam must have been introduced into the body from outside" But when diazepam was subsequently also found to be present in brains that dated to a time before the discovery of Valium synthesis, it was concluded that diazepam was not a synthetic chemical at all but a naturally occurring neurotransmitter in the nervous system (Muller 1988). Thus it was demonstrated that "Valium, the very symbol of chemical psychopharmaca" (Zehentauer 1992, 121 *), is actually a natural substance.

Pharmacologists were surprised when subsequent research demonstrated the presence of diazepam and desmethyldiazepam in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum 1.; cf. Solanum spp.) and in such diverse grains as wheat (Triticum aestivum 1.; cf. beer), corn/maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa 1.; cf. sake) (Muller 1988). Valium, in other words, is a natural active constituent in plants. However, the concentration in these plants is so low that a person would likely not notice any Valium effects even after consuming a whole sack of potatoes. Valium is one of the most widely used sedative drugs in modern society and is normally prescribed for the treatment of anxiety and sleeping disorders.498 Not surprisingly, Valium also finds use as a recreational drug in some circles, particularly in combination with other substances. Its euphoric properties can be greatly affected by alcohol, which can at times counteract the sedative properties, resulting in powerful stimulating effects. Valium is one of the more commonly used psychopharmaca in the music scene. Several rock bands, including the classic "space rock" band Hawkwind CValium 10," 1978), have dedicated titles to the substance.

Commercial Forms and Regulations

Valium is available by prescription only. In the United States, it is listed as a Schedule IV drug under the Controlled Substances Act.

Literature

Flesch, Peter. 1996. SchlafstOrungen bei iilteren Patienten: Auf Benzodiazepine kann meist verzichtet werden. Jatros Neurologie 12:6-7 (interview).

Henningsfield, Jack E. 1988. Barbiturates: Sleeping potion or intoxicant. The Encyclopedia of


Psychoactive Drugs. London, Toronto, and New York: Burke Publishing Company.

Luk, Kin-Chun, Lorraine Stern, Manfred Weigele,

Robert A. O'Brien, and Nena Sprit. 1983.

Isolation and identification of "diazepam-like"

compounds from bovine urine. Journal of

Natural Products 46 (6): 852-61.

Muller, Walter E. 1988. Sind Benzodiazipine 100%

Natur? Deutsche Apotheker Zeitung126 (13): 672-74.

Viola, H., C. Wolfman, M. Levi de Stein, C.

Wasowski, C. Pena, J. H. Medina, and A. C.

Paladini. 1994. Isolation of pharmacologically

active benzodiazepine receptor ligands from Tilia

tomentosa (Tiliaceae). Journal of

Psychopharmacology 44:47-53.

Wesson, Donald R, Susan Camber, Martha Harkey,

and David E. Smith. 1985. Diazepam and

desmethyldiazepam in breast milk. Journal of

Psychoactive Drugs 17 (1): 55-56.

Top Contributors