(Blanked the page)
Line 1: Line 1:
  
<table style="font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 9pt;" width="100%" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0">
 
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top" width="50%"><strong>Other Names</strong>
 
 
Codein, codeina, codeine, codeinum, 4,5u-epoxy3-
 
 
methoxy-17-methyl-7-morphinen-6u-ol, kodein
 
 
Substance type: opium alkaloid
 
 
In 1832, codeine was isolated from opium, which
 
 
has a codeine content of 2 to 30/0 (see Papaver
 
 
somniferum). Codeine is also biosynthesized in the
 
 
roots of Papaver somniferum 1. cv. Marianne (Tam
 
 
et al. 1980). It is possible that trace amounts of
 
 
codeine can also be found in other Papaver species
 
 
(Papaver bracteatum, Papaver decaisnei; cf. Papaver
 
 
spp.) (Theuns et al. 1986). Codeine is also an endogenous
 
 
neurotransmitter in humans (cf. morphine).
 
 
A dosage of 20 to 50 mg produces "general
 
 
mental stimulation, warmth in the head, and an
 
 
increase in the pulse rate, as also appear after the
 
 
consumption of alcohol" (Rompp 1950*). Codeine
 
 
does not appear to be metabolized in the body and
 
 
is excreted unchanged.
 
 
Because codeine suppresses the urge to cough,
 
 
its most important pharmaceutical use is in cough
 
 
syrups. The dosage when codeine is used as a
 
 
cough suppressant is 50 mg three times a day. A
 
 
dosage of 100 to 200 mg results in sleep and
 
 
sedation. Higher dosages elicit effects comparable
 
 
to those of morphine. The medical literature
 
 
contains repeated mentions of "codeine addiction."
 
 
Codeine "addicts" are said to ingest up to 2 g
 
 
of codeine daily (Rompp 1950, 115*). Today,
 
 
codeine is gaining increasing medicinal importance
 
 
as a substitution therapy for heroin addicts
 
 
(Gerlach and Schneider 1994). The pharmaceutical
 
 
industry synthesizes codeine primarily
 
 
from thebaine, the main active constituent in Papaver bracteatum Lindl. (cf. Papaver spp.)
 
 
(Morton 1977, 125*; Theuns et al. 1986).
 
 
Codeine has acquired a certain significance in
 
 
the music scene (jazz, rock, psychedelia), primarily
 
 
as a substitute for heroin or morphine. Buffy
 
 
Saint-Marie sang about the anguish of her codeine
 
 
dependence in the song "Cod'ine" (LP It's My Way!
 
 
Vanguard Records 1964). Quicksilver Messenger
 
 
Service later covered the song and made it famous.
 
 
In the 1990s, the wave band Codeine had several
 
 
albums out through Sub Pop. Cough syrups496
 
 
with a high codeine content were often consumed
 
 
as inebriants at concerts, festivals, et cetera
 
 
(usually in combination with alcohol and
 
 
cannabis) (Bangs 1978, 158).</td>
 
<td valign="top" width="53%"><strong>Commercial Forms and Regulations</strong>
 
 
Codeine is available as a pure substance and as
 
 
codeine hydrochloride, codeine phosphate, and
 
 
codeine phosphate hemihydrate. Codeine is on
 
 
Schedule III in the United States. Preparations
 
 
containing codeine (tinctures, cough syrups, et
 
 
cetera) require a special prescription (i.e., with no
 
 
refills allowed and/or on special prescription
 
 
forms). But in other countries, including France,
 
 
Spain, Nepal, and India, a prescription is still
 
 
unnecessary and the medicine can be obtained
 
 
over the counter from any pharmacy.
 
 
<strong>Literature</strong>
 
 
See also the entries for Papaver somniferum,
 
 
morphine, and opium alkaloids.
 
 
Bangs, Lester. 1978. Ich sah Gott und/oder Tangerine
 
 
Dream. Rocksession 2:155-58. Reinbek: Rowohlt.
 
 
Esser, Barbara. 1998. Vom Regen in die Traufe: Das
 
 
Verbot des Ersatzstoffs Codein ... Focus 26 (6):
 
 
58-60.
 
 
Gerlach, Ralf, and Wolfgang Schneider. 1994.
 
 
Methadon- und Codeinensubstitution:
 
 
Erfahrungen, Forschungsergebnisse,
 
 
Praxiskonsequenzen. Berlin: VWB.
 
 
Tam, W. H. John, Friedrich Constabel, and Wolfgang
 
 
G. W. Kurz. 1980. Codeine from cell suspension cultures of Papaver somniferum. Phytochemistry
 
 
19:486-87.
 
 
Theuns, Hubert G., H. Leo Theuns, and Robert J. J.
 
 
Ch. Lousberg. 1986. Search for new natural
 
 
sources of morphinians. Economic Botany 40 (4):
 
 
485-97.</td>
 
</tr>
 
 
</table>
 
 
[[Category:Opioid]]
 
[[Category:Drugs]]
 

Revision as of 12:44, 18 February 2014

Top Contributors