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Alprazolam, is a short acting anxiolytic of the benzodiazepine class of drugs. It is commonly used and FDA approved for the treatment of panic disorders and anxiety disorders, such as GAD/SAD. It is found in IR tablets and XR forumulations.
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[[File:Xanax.jpg|250px|right]]
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'''Alprazolam''' is a short acting anxiolytic of the [[Benzodiazepines|benzodiazepine]] class of drugs. It is commonly used and FDA approved for the treatment of panic disorders and anxiety disorders, such as GAD/SAD. It is available in both instant and time released version.
  
= History =
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== History ==
  
Alprazolam was first released by Pfizer, under the brand name Xanax. The patent was filed in October 1969, granted in October of 1976, and expired in September of 1993. It was first released in 1981. It’s first approved usage was panic disorder.
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Alprazolam was first released by Upjohn, under the brand name Xanax. The patent was filed in October 1969, granted in October of 1976, and expired in September of 1993. It was first released in 1981, for the treatment of panic disorders.
  
= Formulations =
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== Formulations ==
  
 
Instant release tablets are available in 0.25mg, 0.5mg, 1mg, and 2mg.
 
Instant release tablets are available in 0.25mg, 0.5mg, 1mg, and 2mg.
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Oral solutions are available in 0.5mg/5mL and as 1mg/1mL solutions.
 
Oral solutions are available in 0.5mg/5mL and as 1mg/1mL solutions.
  
= Dosage =
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== Dosage ==
  
 
Note: Higher doses have an increased risk of blacking out.  
 
Note: Higher doses have an increased risk of blacking out.  
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{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ Oral
 
|+ Oral
| Light ||.25-.5mg
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| Light ||0.25-0.5mg
  
 
|-
 
|-
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|}
 
|}
  
= Duration =
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== Duration ==
  
 
Note: Duration can be significantly longer with higher doses.
 
Note: Duration can be significantly longer with higher doses.
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| Onset || 20-40 minutes
 
| Onset || 20-40 minutes
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 +
|-
  
 
| Duration || 5-8 hours
 
| Duration || 5-8 hours
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|}
 
|}
  
= Effects =
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== Effects ==
  
== Positive ==
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=== Positive ===
  
 
*Euphoria
 
*Euphoria
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*Anti-Anxiety effects
 
*Anti-Anxiety effects
== Neutral ==
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=== Neutral ===
  
 
*Drowsiness
 
*Drowsiness
  
 
*Appetite fluctuation
 
*Appetite fluctuation
== Negative ==
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=== Negative ===
  
 
*Memory loss
 
*Memory loss
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*Emotional and social dissociation or de-realization (long term use)
 
*Emotional and social dissociation or de-realization (long term use)
  
= Harm Reduction =
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== Harm Reduction ==
  
When on high doses of benzodiazepines, users are likely to black out and potentially hurt themselves through a variety of adventures. If you are using it as a sleep aid, it's reccomended to continue doing what you're doing until you begin to feel drowsy, then go to bed
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When on high doses of [[Benzodiazepines|benzodiazepines]], users are likely to black out and potentially hurt themselves through a variety of adventures. If you are using it as a sleep aid, it's recommended to continue doing what you're doing until you begin to feel drowsy, then go to bed.
  
Some users report Alprazolam (And benzodiazepines in general) to compulsive redosing, trying to find a “high” which is where a fair amount of the above point comes from. To avoid this keep doses low and be wary of reduced inhibitions while under the influence of Alprazolam
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Some users report Alprazolam (and [[Benzodiazepines|benzodiazepines]] in general) to lead to compulsive redosing, trying to find a “high” which is where a fair amount of the point above comes from. To avoid this keep doses low and be wary of reduced inhibitions while under the influence of Alprazolam.
  
== Interactions ==
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=== Interactions ===
  
 
As with other depressants, Alprazolam should not be combined with any other CNS depressants (such as [[Alcohol]]), at the risk of respiratory depression, which can lead to death.
 
As with other depressants, Alprazolam should not be combined with any other CNS depressants (such as [[Alcohol]]), at the risk of respiratory depression, which can lead to death.
 
See the [[Drug combinations]] chart for more information.
 
See the [[Drug combinations]] chart for more information.
  
= Chemistry and Pharmacology =
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== Chemistry and Pharmacology ==
  
 
Alprazolam is absorbed fairly rapidly, with peak plasma levels achieved around the one-two hour mark.
 
Alprazolam is absorbed fairly rapidly, with peak plasma levels achieved around the one-two hour mark.
  
It is primarily metabilised via CYP3A4. Alprazolam is a chemical analogue of triazolam. It is a triazolobenzodiazepine. It binds to the GABA(a) receptor and modulates the function of the GABA receptor. You can learn more about the GABA(a) receptor here. [url][[http://wiki.tripsit.me/wiki/GABA_Receptors_and_Subunits_Info]][/url]
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It is primarily metabilised via CYP3A4. Alprazolam is a chemical analogue of triazolam. It is a triazolobenzodiazepine. It binds to the GABA(a) receptor and modulates the function of the GABA receptor. You can learn more about the GABA(a) receptor [[GABA Receptors and Subunits Info|here]].
  
The LD50 of Alprazolam in rats is 331-2171mg/kg
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The LD50 of Alprazolam in rats is 331-2171mg/kg.
= Legal Status =
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==USA==
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An Australian study (2004) of overdose admissions between 1987 and 2002 found alprazolam, which happens to be the most prescribed [[Benzodiazepines|benzodiazepine]] in the U.S. by a large margin, to be more toxic than [[Diazepam|diazepam]] and other [[Benzodiazepines|benzodiazepines]].
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== Legal Status ==
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===USA===
 
Alprazolam is a schedule IV substance.
 
Alprazolam is a schedule IV substance.
==UK==
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===UK===
Under the UK drug misuse classification system benzodiazepines are class C drugs (Schedule 4)
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Under the UK drug misuse classification system benzodiazepines are class C drugs (Schedule 4).
==Ireland==
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===Ireland===
 
Alprazolam is a schedule 4 medicine.
 
Alprazolam is a schedule 4 medicine.
==Sweden==
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===Sweden===
Alprazolam is a prescription drug in List IV under the Narcotic Drugs Act (1968)
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Alprazolam is a prescription drug in List IV under the Narcotic Drugs Act (1968).
==Netherlands==
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===Netherlands===
 
Alprazolam is a List 2 substance of the Opium Law and is available for prescription.
 
Alprazolam is a List 2 substance of the Opium Law and is available for prescription.
==Australia==
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===Australia===
Alprazolam was orginally a Schedule 4 (prescription only) medication; yet as of February 2014, it has become a Schedule 8 medication.
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Alprazolam was orginally a Schedule 4 (prescription only) medication; yet as of February 2014 it has become a Schedule 8 medication.
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[[Category:Drugs]]
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[[Category:Benzodiazepine]]
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[[Category:Depressant]]

Latest revision as of 10:23, 26 June 2015

Xanax.jpg

Alprazolam is a short acting anxiolytic of the benzodiazepine class of drugs. It is commonly used and FDA approved for the treatment of panic disorders and anxiety disorders, such as GAD/SAD. It is available in both instant and time released version.

History

Alprazolam was first released by Upjohn, under the brand name Xanax. The patent was filed in October 1969, granted in October of 1976, and expired in September of 1993. It was first released in 1981, for the treatment of panic disorders.

Formulations

Instant release tablets are available in 0.25mg, 0.5mg, 1mg, and 2mg.

Extended Release tablets are available in 0.5mg, 1mg, 2mg, and 3mg.

Oral solutions are available in 0.5mg/5mL and as 1mg/1mL solutions.

Dosage

Note: Higher doses have an increased risk of blacking out.

Oral
Light 0.25-0.5mg
Common 0.5-1.5mg
Strong 1.5-2mg
Heavy 2-3mg

Duration

Note: Duration can be significantly longer with higher doses.

Oral
Onset 20-40 minutes
Duration 5-8 hours

Effects

Positive

  • Euphoria
  • Relaxation
  • Anti-Anxiety effects

Neutral

  • Drowsiness
  • Appetite fluctuation

Negative

  • Memory loss
  • Blackout potential
  • Motor skill impairment
  • Dizziness
  • Depression
  • Irritability, aggression, rage
  • Personality changes
  • Emotional and social dissociation or de-realization (long term use)

Harm Reduction

When on high doses of benzodiazepines, users are likely to black out and potentially hurt themselves through a variety of adventures. If you are using it as a sleep aid, it's recommended to continue doing what you're doing until you begin to feel drowsy, then go to bed.

Some users report Alprazolam (and benzodiazepines in general) to lead to compulsive redosing, trying to find a “high” which is where a fair amount of the point above comes from. To avoid this keep doses low and be wary of reduced inhibitions while under the influence of Alprazolam.

Interactions

As with other depressants, Alprazolam should not be combined with any other CNSCentral Nervous System depressants (such as Alcohol), at the risk of respiratory depression, which can lead to death. See the Drug combinations chart for more information.

Chemistry and Pharmacology

Alprazolam is absorbed fairly rapidly, with peak plasma levels achieved around the one-two hour mark.

It is primarily metabilised via CYP3A4. Alprazolam is a chemical analogue of triazolam. It is a triazolobenzodiazepine. It binds to the GABAGamma aminobutyric acid an amino acid that is found in the central nervous system; acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter.(a) receptor and modulates the function of the GABAGamma aminobutyric acid an amino acid that is found in the central nervous system; acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. receptor. You can learn more about the GABAGamma aminobutyric acid an amino acid that is found in the central nervous system; acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter.(a) receptor here.

The LD50The dosage of a substance at which 50% of the exposed subjects does not survive. To estimate the LD50 for humans, tests are conducted on non-human subjects. of Alprazolam in rats is 331-2171mg/kg.

An Australian study (2004) of overdose admissions between 1987 and 2002 found alprazolam, which happens to be the most prescribed benzodiazepine in the U.S. by a large margin, to be more toxic than diazepam and other benzodiazepines.

Legal Status

USA

Alprazolam is a schedule IV substance.

UK

Under the UK drug misuse classification system benzodiazepines are class C drugs (Schedule 4).

Ireland

Alprazolam is a schedule 4 medicine.

Sweden

Alprazolam is a prescription drug in List IV under the Narcotic Drugs Act (1968).

Netherlands

Alprazolam is a List 2 substance of the Opium Law and is available for prescription.

Australia

Alprazolam was orginally a Schedule 4 (prescription only) medication; yet as of February 2014 it has become a Schedule 8 medication.

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